Monday, 30 September 2019

English Language Teaching Essay

This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully designed language activities be carried out by instructors in order to impart sociolinguistic skills to learners. The importance of universal intelligibility should be stressed, as opposed to native accent. Furthermore students should also be taught proper contextual use of English, in accordance to cultural reference and cultural appropriacy should be part of the learners’ core sociolinguistic competence. Keywords: Socio-cultural rules, Sociolinguistic competence, Formal language, Colloquialism 1. Introduction Malaysia is a multi-racial society which is strongly bounded by its system of monarchy. However, Malays form the largest portion of its demography, with Malay as its national language. Though Malay is still the most commonly used lingua franca among Malaysians, English is gaining more importance and relevance in the country. In fact, Malaysians have come to realize that it is no longer necessary, nor desirable to aim at an English native speaker’s speech to achieve their communicative function. However, there has been a strong decline in the levels of English proficiency in the country .This is evident in Malaysians’ everyday speech, which are often marred by grammatical and phonological errors or at times too loaded with â€Å"suffixes† (e.g. lah, lor, meh) and loan words from other languages. English is the second most important language in Malaysia. It is used in  various professions and is an important requirement in Malaysian academic settings. The academic setting is a microcosm of the Malaysian population, which is a mix of interlocutors of different racial and language backgrounds. They may also differ in their English language proficiency levels. Therefore, it could be assumed that in Malaysian schools’ unique language environment, sociolinguistic competence contributes to Malaysian students English language proficiency. 2. Malaysian School Language Policy When Malaysia got its independence in 1957, the government of Malaysia set out on a program to establish Bahasa Melayu as the official language, to be used in all government functions and as the medium of instruction at all levels in the education system. The introduction of a new primary school curriculum which goes by the Malay acronym, KBSR (Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah), and the new secondary school curriculum which goes by the acronym, KBSM (Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah), is an approach to provide holistic, balanced and integrated development of an individual’s potential; intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical aspect. However in 2002, the government announced a reversal of policy, calling for a switch to English as a medium of instruction for Mathematics and Science at all levels in the education system. Since 2003, Science and Mathematics have been taught in English. Therefore, teachers will be forced to code-switch to make pupils understand the su bject matter. 3. Sociolinguistic Competence Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of the sociocultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the social context in which language is used: the rules of the participants, the information they share, and the functions of the interaction. Only in a full context of this kind can judgement be made on the appropriateness of a ‘particular utterance’, as mentioned by Brown (2000). Lyie Bachman’s (1990) sociolinguistic competence comprises aspects, which deal with factors such as politeness, formality, metaphor, registers, and culturally related aspects of language. For students learning English in Malaysia, sociolinguistic competence should take into account those aspects as proposed by Bachman. Broersma (2001) stated that the process of learning sociolinguistic competence is challenging even in one’s first language. He also proposed that evidence of this can be found in the popularity of â€Å"Miss Manners† columns. He claims if we all had perfect sociolinguistic competence, we wouldn’t need advice about the proper way to send wedding invitations or give a dinner party. Having good sociolinguistic competence means knowing how to â€Å"give every person his or her due.† It means knowing when to be quiet, and when to talk, when to give compliments to others, and when to apologize. It also means being able to read situations and know what is the right thing to say or do. There are an infinite number of combinations of roles, tasks, contexts, and feelings that govern what is appropriate in any given encounter. 4. Sensitivity to Dialect or Variety The standard variety of English used in our country is the variety that is taught formally in schools and the Standard British English is the linguistic model in the education system of Malaysia. However in Malaysia, English, being the second language, is learnt for a functional purpose. The most important measure of success when a language is learnt for a functional purpose is communicative effectiveness; that is, whether the language enabled the learners to achieve the purpose of learning. A dialect is a language variation spoken by a particular ethnic, social or regional group and is an element of the group’s collective identity (Ogbu, 1999). Each dialect within a language is just as logical, complex and  rule-governed as the standard form of the language (often called standard variety). Malaysian English (or Manglish) is a non-native variety of English and is one of the most prominent features of Malaysia’s linguistic corpus. Baskaran (1994) has categorized ‘Manglish’ into three sociolects, which are: †¢ Acrolect (‘high’ social dialect) – used for official or educational purposes, considered to be the standard educated sub-variety that approximates native competence and is used in formal speech as well as in written forms by speakers who have been educated in English; †¢ Mesolect (‘middle’ social dialect) – used in semiformal and casual situations, a sub-variety that is used in informal situations among fellow Malaysians. †¢ Basilect (‘low’ social dialect) – used informally and colloquially as a ‘patois’ shades into a pidgin used mostly by village peddlers when talking to tourists and other potential customers. 5. Different English Varieties. There are different varieties of English used here in Malaysia. The important issue here is what would be considered as an acceptable variety of English for Malaysian students? In Malaysia, there is a strong tradition of teaching English when learners are still very young. Also, due to home language interferences and strong media influence, which at times popularises Manglish as a more convenient spoken variety, Malaysian students might not have enough exposure to models of Standard English. Parents might communicate with their children in  strong accented English which is unique to each cultural/racial group, or/and even in broken or grammatically incorrect English. This variety of English could be incomprehensible at times. 5.1 Malaysian English (ME) Some words of ME reflect the multilingual traits of the country. The existence of loan words in the lexis of ME is very rampant and common, especially since Malaysia is a Malay dominated country both in language and culture. Moreover there are no lexical equivalents of certain Malay words in English. Listed below is a list of commonly used borrowed words and phrases which have made their way into the repertoire of speech among speakers of Manglish. At the lexical level, some words of ME used by students reflect the multilingual traits of the country. There exist loan words from contact languages such as Chinese (ta-paw, pu-yao) and Bahasa Malayu (makan). Using substrate lexemes plural in the usual English way is common, e.g. kopios coffees (kop-o, black coffee), Menteri Besar (head of state government) and pengarahs (directors). Other cultural expressions adopted in ME, for instance: †¢ Kadhi (religious judge) impose a fine for khalwat (illicit proximity to the opposite sex) †¢ Don’t act so ulufied (backward, not hip) Wear something more stylo (stylish) †¢ Lets go ngerdate (dating), an Indonesian slang very common among the Malays. †¢ Hello thamby, (boy) one cup of coffee please. An example of a short conversation in colloquial Malaysian English (non-standard English) may sound like this: Housewife: Your fish so flabby, no good one. Fishmonger : Like that already hard †¢what. How hard one you want? You want stone, want wood. I can’t find. Housewife : You half-past six lawyer one. Give little bit cheap la, this fish. Fishmonger : Oh, that’s why you said that kind, said my thing flabby, you want Cheap-cheap. Housewife : You don’t want give, I look other places. Fishmonger : Look, look la, wait you come back look for me also. (Adibah Aroin, New Straits Times, 3V December 1992) 6. Awareness of language differences in the classroom Though the use of Standard English is very much desired, one must not dismiss the significance of other varieties of the language, particularly Manglish. Students must be made to realise the importance of Standard English in academic and formal settings; but at the same time be conscious of the communicative function of Manglish. Manglish helps learners to bridge the gap between the use of acrolect among proponents in an academic setting and the basilect used among their peers to facilitate understanding. More importantly, Manglish has a social function of fostering ties. It motivates students to move from one speech to another level through the opening up of communication channels across the sociolects. Students must realise that the main objective of learning English is not to acquire native speakers’ competency but rather to be intelligible among international English speakers and those within their ‘community’. Students  must be conscious that dialects are not inferior languages and that they should be respected, and that Standard English is necessary only in a formal context. 6.1 Intercultural Media Language The English language and its varieties would make excellent vehicles to create cross-cultural awareness. Students are able to use print and non-print resources of language such to compare the language used in British newspapers and the local dailies. Students will find differences in the use of lexical items and would be able to familiarize themselves with the constructs of ‘Manglish’. They will then proceed to examine larger texts such as novels and plays. This will encourage students to accept their own variety and ‘overcome reluctance to approach another variety once they found that the texts in these other varieties were accessible to them’ (Kachru and Nelson: 1996) 6.2 New English Literatures An excellent method to introduce other varieties of English is through literature. The area of literature opens up multi-traditional aspects of human life, which encourages students to broaden their horizons. By introducing literatures that is very much Malaysian, students will be exposed to new uses and forms of their own language. 6.3 Manglish Discourse Materials, which have features of ‘Manglish’ such as advertisement, obituaries and excerpts from TV and conversations, provide excellent  resources in discussing discourse markers. In this way, students are able to study speech acts such as negotiating, persuading, and apologizing within the structures and cultural context which is most familiar to them. Rather than perceiving it as an obstacle to learning the English language, the recognition of ‘Manglish’ by educational bodies may perhaps be of a great value. 6.4 Importance of Standard Variety I would suggest that students learn to handle formal language in schools. This is because they can easily revert to conversational and colloquial language as and when the context arises. However if one only learns to speak at the colloquial level, one can never rise up to the occasion to speak formal English when the need arises. Formal English requires usage of proper grammar and syntax with appropriate vocabulary. It takes a lot of practice before one can master English at this level. So why short change our students by accepting communication that is only up to the non- native variety level? In fact there is worry in many English speaking countries that teenagers are so used to using colloquial English in their ‘SMS’, that they cannot manage formal English, especially at the written level 7. Sensitivity to Registers The notion of ‘developing a language’ means, adding to its range of social functions. This is achieved by developing new registers. According to Halliday (1978:195), a register is a set of meanings that is appropriate to a particular function of language, together with the words and structures which express these meanings’. Registers are commonly identified by certain phonological variants, vocabulary, idioms and other expressions that are associated with different occupational or socio-economic groups. 7.1 Importance of Registers to Learners The term register includes different aspects of language in various contexts such as field of discourse, modes of discourse, style of discourse and discourse domain. It is important for students to develop styles and registers and recognize how to use them appropriately and be conscious of the need to do so. 7.1.1 Field of Discourse The knowledge of discourse enables students to have the ability to communicate with specialists in a particular field once they’ve understood the use of terminologies used in that field. In The STAR online, 24h March, there was a write up from a concerned parent who felt that teachers needed help in the field of Maths and Science and how crude errors are made such as ‘8 push 4 is 4’ a literal translation from BM (8 tolak 4 ialah 4). Therefore it is important for students to be exposed to mathematical and scientific terminologies because knowledge is power Having knowledge in various fields will help students in their future studies or career such as being proficient in delivering speeches, conducting negotiations, preparing drafts of agreements and in routine business communication. 7.1.2 Modes of Discourse Modes of discourse can be either written or verbal. Students who are not very well versed in their speech may produce ungrammatical, short, incomplete sentences, filled with false starts, fillers and pauses. Tongue (1968:83) has defined ‘fillers’ as a term used to indicate those items of language which communicate no particular denotative meaning but which are used to indicate the emotive, affective attitudes of the speaker, or sometimes simply to fill a pause or a moment of hesitation or reflection in the stream of speech. The most well known is the â€Å"suffix† lah or sometimes pronounced la, which realises different pragmatic functions as illustrated below: †¢ Emphasizing support e.g. I agree lah †¢ Persuading e.g. †¦ .you must do it in a proper way lah †¢ Complementing e.g. that’s a good idea, good lah Other common fillers used are ‘bah’ (by the Sabahans), ‘mah’ (by the Chinese) and â€Å"a?† or â€Å"ah†. â€Å"Ah† serves to function as fillers or breaking points as well as bringing out a question force as shown below. †¢ No point helping friends who are not interested, do you agree with that, ah? Other features of Malaysianess include the use of tag questions in particular the use of â€Å"isn’t it?† and adding the phrase â€Å"or not† to the preceding instead of presenting two alternatives. †¢ We’ve done it, isn’t it? †¢ You want to follow or not? Students must be mindful that usage of such a variety of English is accepted in informal settings. However in a formal setting, the standard variety of English is necessary and is the acceptable norm. With the changing role and the decline in the standard of English in Malaysia, it is found that instances of deviation from Standard English have increased in frequency. Though there is an attempt to use the Standard English, inadequate exposure and lack of knowledge result in the many basic Standard English deviations, which are found even in the speech of educated users of the language. As far as Malaysian students are concerned, these irregularities are usually tolerated and overlooked, as long as they do not interfere too greatly with communicative purposes. At present, indication of these irregularities may be observed in the spoken mode, as many students seem to feel quite free to incorporate features of the local dialect, into their speech, be it in a formal or informal situation . 7.1.3 Style of Discourse An important issue is how students use their verbal repertoire and what are the uses they will put them to. According to Halliday (1978), there are factors, which affect the way people use language. Halliday classifies this as field, mode and tenor. Field refers to ‘why’ and about what a communication takes place, mode is about ‘how’, and tenor is about to whom. For example, in writing a letter, one might start: â€Å"l am writing to inform you that†¦.† but in another letter, the same person might write: â€Å"I just  want to let you know that†¦Ã¢â‚¬  According to Joos (1967), there are five types of formalities: 1) Frozen style is more characteristic of writing than speech e.g. Students should make their way at once to the upper floor by way of the staircase. 2) Formal style uses sentences that show careful planning and logical development of ideas e.g. Students should go up the stairs at once. People who have limited shared background use consultative style; sentences are complete and some background information is given e.g. Would you mind going upstairs right away, please? People who have a shared background use casual style; it is marked by slang, profanity and incomplete sentences e.g. Time you all went upstairs now. Intimate style is the style, which is highly economical and is accompanied by a lot of non-verbal communication; people who know each other very well use it e.g. Up you go, fellows! It seems to me that it is in the area covered by consultative, formal and frozen, that our students need to be competent in. They ought to know which style to use when an occasion arises. Once a student said to his teacher in class: â€Å"Would you be so kind to explain again?† and a moment later, he said, â€Å"I want you to explain this question again†. This shows that the student is not consistent in the level of formality. In a classroom situation, the second one is acceptable but the first one is too formal. Our students fail to take into account the relationship between participants and situations or settings. Students need to be aware that a formal setting requires formal speech and that they may use colloquial words or phrases in an informal setting. They need to be aware that using language often involves how formal one needs to be in a situation. 8. Cultural References and Figures of Speech An overall understanding of the significant role of cultural variables in cross-cultural interactions will act as a bridge to mutual understanding and acceptance in situations of cultural conflict. Students must be aware that in certain cultures, the people are expected to respond to certain  utterances in an appropriate way, which is of the linguistic norm. 8.1 Importance of Cultural Appropriacy A possible way of dealing with varied cultural behaviour is to sensitise students to the unique characteristics of other cultures. Students should develop cultural tolerance and show understanding for other people’s differences. The ability to be tolerant is necessary for anyone hoping to avoid miscommunication. It involves the learner recognizing that every culture has its own logic, its own integrity and that no one culture is any better (or, for that matter, any worse) than any other. Malaysian idiomatic expressions used by learners could only be understood at the local context. Some are even fond of the idea of contextualization these days. It truly gives a Malaysian flavour to our speech. Localised expression appeals to the average man in the street. Having a common speech pattern somehow helps some students to bond quickly and so it helps to establish friendship between like-minded people. 9. Ways of Improving Students Sociolinguistics Competence The lack in cross-cultural understanding or sensitivity on the part of the teacher has serious implications because it affects classroom management and consequently, student’s learning. There are various activities that can be carried out in classrooms to instil cultural understanding. Learning how to perform particular speech acts in both formal and informal settings,  learning particular â€Å"ways of speaking†, like story telling, narratives, joke-telling, simply learning to chitchat, are all important in learning how to speak proficiently. Syaharom Abdullah (1995) believes that students will become conscious of the values and expectations, which are basic in a culture through dialogue practice or role-play. In learning English, the student has to learn how to use and interpret the sociolinguistic rules of English in various contexts. To achieve this, the learner must develop an awareness of areas in which the sociolinguistic system of his own culture differs from those of other cultures. Teachers can design some problem-solving exercises in order to do so. 10. Conclusion It is obvious that sociolinguistic competence offers more insights in learning a language. Problems may arise for students’ who may not be familiar with the various context of language use. By means of getting acquainted with the various cultures of Englishes and updating their knowledge about language learning, students may be better able to accomplish the goals of engaging themselves in the pragmatic, authentic, functional use of language for meaningful purpose. It is important that the second language instructors in Malaysia be familiar with sociolinguistics. Teaching language is not just about learning the rudiments of the language but also various cultural refinements. Students must be made aware of formal and informal language use. They should be knowledgeable as to appropriate expressions for different context. Students must be mindful as to when they can resort to colloquial language and when formality is necessary. Lastly students need to be made aware that mastering English does not mean acquiring native proficiency, but rather having universal intelligibility. References Adibah A. (1992). The New Straits Times, SO†1 December. Bachman, L. (1990). Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford University Press. Baskaran,L. (1994). The Malaysia English Mosaic. English Today 37 Vol. 10. Brown H. Douglas, (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition, Longman. Broersma, D. (2001). â€Å"‘You’re So White, So Fat, and So Hairy!†: Developing Sociolinguistic Competence in a Second Language.† In Helping Learners Develop Second Language Proficiency, L. J. Dickerson (Ed.), pp. 200-205. Colorado Springs: Mission Training International. M.A.K. Halliday. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic: The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning, Baltimore: University Park Press, 1978; London: Edward Arnold, 1978. Joos, Martin. (1967). The Five Clocks, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Kachru. B.B. and Nelson, C.L. (1996). World Englishes. In Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. USA Cambridge University Press. Morias, Elaine. (1994). Malaysian Business Talk: A Study of Conflict and Non-Conflict in Verbal Interactions. PHD Thesis, University of Malaya. Syaharom Abdullah. (1995). Thai Tesol Annual Conference, January 1995, Universiti Utara Malaysia. Test/cultural kind-html. The Star On Line, 24th March, 2003. Tongue, R.K. (1979). The English of Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore, Eastern University Press. Ogbu, J.U. (1999). Beyond Languages: Ebonies, Proper English and Identity in a Black- American Speech Community. American Educational Research Journal, 36 147-184.

Sunday, 29 September 2019

Harlem Renaissance by Nathan Irvin Huggins

Book Review of The Harlem Renaissance by Antonio Raglans 4/25/2010 In the book entitled â€Å"Harlem Renaissance† by Nathan Irvin Huggins a story is told about the time period before World War I and the following years in which a â€Å"Black Metropolis† was created unlike the world had ever seen. It was the largest and by far the most important black community in the world. It brought together black intellectuals from all over the world to this new â€Å"Black Mecca† with dreams of prosperity and change. Their common goal was the prosperity of the New Negro as Lain Locke called them.This New Negro was one that was cultured, educated, artistic, and would bring prosperity to the African-American. All these were the promises of the Harlem Renaissance. I think that his thesis was in the opening sentence when he talks about Harlem. When people saw Harlem, they saw opportunity, they saw a place where they could escape and enjoy artistic freedom. They saw liberation, th ey saw hope, they saw a place where confidence was in abundance. That confidence translated to the belief that reform could be attained. Sadly, Nathan Irvin Huggins points out that all they were was deceived by their ream.They all saw in Harlem much more than what was really there. A common belief was that they could use their talents as a way of bridging the gap between the races. Unfortunately racism has been so deep rooted in the white American psyche that it would take more than the New Negro proving he had artistic talent to be accepted as one and the same. Huggins also cites that their art was compromised by the fact that it was intended for white patrons and was not a full reflection of them. Another mistake they made was not organizing a grass roots movement.The black lattice leaders failed to become a unified voting force and were unable to obtain true political power needed to bring about change. Huggins writes about how the motivation of many talented Afro-Americans reloc ation to Harlem was simple; they wanted to be where their talents would reach the most people. They wanted to be in a place where their talents could be cultivated. They saw inspiration in their people and they wanted to be where their talents would be appreciated. They came to find themselves through their race in Harlem. Upon their arrival in Harlem, Huggins points out that many artists like Longboats Hughes, ZornNeal Hurst, and Claude McKay found new friends who were willing to lend a helping hand in their careers. The fact that all of these new helping hands were all white may have influenced the artistic integrity of their work. Huggins wrote â€Å"Without the help and friendship of white men and publishers, there probably would have been little production of commercial black art in the sass. But white guidance and encouragement probably prevented those few men and women of real talent from wrestling with their senses and plodding through to those statements which the Hurst of their lives and experience could force them to make† (129).Huggins goes on to mention that Black artist found it difficult if not impossible to maintain their artistic integrity because they were dependent on their white patron. They had no force or leverage in publishing houses other than the demand of their white patrons. If they were to create something to critical they would run the risk of losing the white patrons as well as the white benefactors. Huggins backs his observation with the story of the Park Avenue Matron that at one time supported Zorn Neal Hurst, Louise Thompson, and Longboats Hughes. She at one time or another supported them financially as well as helping them get published.Huggins mentions how she spared no expense on Hughes. She provided financial freedom for him to write as well as a driver to take him anywhere he wanted. Hughes felt a genuine appreciation for her because like many other Afro- Americans like him he never had anybody that cared so much f or him and for his talent. The fact that it was a white woman nurturing his talent led to some clashes and the eventual dissolution of their relationship. Huggins writes of the time Hughes rote a poem with a very radical message that his benefactor did not like, which lead him to question where this relationship would take his work.Huggins wrote â€Å"When Hughes showed his patron this poem, He knew she did not like it. â€Å"Its not you †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Let's a powerful poem but its not you† Who was he? Wasn't that the problem? Who was to decide? Who was to know? † (135). This quote proves that these white benefactors gave their opinion and influenced black artist's works. One of the early contributors of white interest in black intellectuals was a man by the name of Carl Van Bechtel. He counted numerous black artists as his friends. He was responsible for popularizing â€Å"Black Art. † He through his connections allowed people like Longboats Hughes to e nter the white mainstream.He also cultivated and encouraged numerous other young artists and similarly launched numerous careers. It was his fascination with the exotic and primitive as Huggins put it that sparked his slumming trips uptown into Harlem. That incredible rush he felt allowed him to bring many prominent white patrons back to Harlem. His popularization began the golden era called the Harlem Renaissance. Huggins called him â€Å"The undisputed Prince of Harlem. † Huggins also mentions that the fact that there were so many different types of Afro- Americans in Harlem it prevented the unification of a desired voting block.Huggins points out that there was in-race racism between light skinned blacks, blacks from the south, and blacks from the Caribbean with relates to much of the racism issues discussed throughout our class. They all were supposed to unite and together fight for reform. All this made consistent leadership impossible. The black political leaders found it impossible to unite them all. The only one who was successful according to Huggins was Marcus Graver because he stayed away from political agendas. He preached escape and managed to capture the imagination of the black people in Harlem.But his lack of a business sense and his own megalomania caused his attempts to flounder. None of them addressed the Negro problems but instead they wanted to quickly erase the view of a black person in chains and make everyone aware that they were more than Just manual laborers. This lack of focus prevented Negro leadership from obtaining true success. As I mentioned that black wanted to obtain true success and be viewed as different workers besides manual, I feel that it connects with our conferences about African-Americans wanting to do more for their country during the World Wars.Another problem Huggins presents with the black political leaders philosophy was that they addressed racism as a moral problem. They employed muckraking journalist tac tics of exposing injustices and racism. Huggins states â€Å"The assumption was that the moral weight of good would win once evil was exposed. The unreason, the illogic the craven corruption that barred blacks from a fair chance in society could not stand, for men of good will under the harsh light of good reason† (27). This propaganda proved to be unsuccessful since it brought no significant change.As Huggins finally put it â€Å"What good would it do to expose President Willow's racism? Even if he read it he had a self-righteousness that was a match for any other progressive. All of that did not matter† (30). Both of these quotes prove Huggins point that the way black political leaders approached their reform attempts were misguided. As he put it, it did not matter the scathing criticism leaders like W. E. B. Dubos made in their editorials on black injustices it would not bring about any serious change. Unlike child labor and other topics of muckraking exposing them would not be enough to eradicate them.Huggins effectively proved to me that these white benefactors and white patrons influenced the work of black artist. Who knows what tone their works would have taken if they where liberated from white influences. Maybe they would have been razor sharp criticism like W. E. B. Dubos editorials. Unfortunately no one would ever know. As far as their failed attempt at reform he showed some of the mistakes they add but also mentioned that they laid the foundation for a civil rights movement that eventually brought about social change that these Harlem intellectuals promised.In a book review from Amazon. Com a reviewer mention that: â€Å"More than any other period, it was during the Harlem renaissance in which the black community came of age culturally and came together as one united front against racism using cultural tools and its intellectual power and substance on par with its white counterparts. Against all odds, they created a cultural oasis ri ght in the diddle of a sea of white hatred and racial recrimination.This flowering was something that was not only unexpected and shocking to the sensibilities of most whites, but shocking also to many blacks outside of New York, around the countryside. And although the flowering occurred across the board, its clearest expression took place in literature, art and music, which itself later was to become America's transformation art form. † Another scholarly source that I found from ASTOR by Robber Solar of _ The Journal of American History_ found that Huggins book was â€Å"disarmingly simple and exceedingly ample. Solar went on explaining that the Harlem Renaissance was a Negro self- creation, and it was created in a place(Harlem) of sense and had become an urban â€Å"Mecca† where diversity, talent and energy would change the black persona. One last review that I found on ASTOR from Charles Davis of _American Literature_ stated that Huggins book was not the first full study assessment of black artists and of their intellectual and cultural efforts in the decade following the first World War. Of course Huggins can not provide a full assessment during that time period which could confuse readers if you look at it from that point of view.I think that the first two reviews are in line with what I have been discussing through the whole review. During that era, African-Americans were struggling for freedom in the middle of a land full of hatred and racism. African-Americans wanted more freedom and it expressing it in various of categories such as art or music really helped freedom for blacks in today's society. The Authors sources are documented correctly. Book Review Huggins, Irvin, Nathan. Harlem Renaissance: Oxford University Press, New York, 1971

Saturday, 28 September 2019

Technology, Government, Entrepreneurship and their influence after Essay

Technology, Government, Entrepreneurship and their influence after world war 2 - Essay Example USA patented their commercial scale of production in 1948 and most of the pharmaceutical organizations went on to patent most of their potent antibiotics in 1950s-60s. Some of the American companies that took advantage of German Drug Patents are Winthrop Chemical Company and IG Farben. Political support was agreed upon after extensive research by numerous bodies including pharmaceutical industry, academic researchers, and government researchers. There was need to include intellectual influence on pharmaceutical companies due to dangers imposed by some drugs on patients. The government regularly sort academic physicians help while handling drug issues because they were deemed experts in the medical field. Germany experienced the most creative period between 1932 and 1945 and American scientists looted their patents after the World War II due to German’s devastation after the war. Americans had enough money to fund medical researches hence prompting them to strip off Germany inv entiveness. According to   Expert Reviews Staff World War II completely changed the world by ushering in a new technological age in the world we live now (Web). Governments invested a lot of money in research and technology to find better ways of destroying the enemy yet the eventual technology changed the way people think. During the post-world war II, pharmaceutical industry engaged itself in an extensive research as well as administrative networks with a number of bodies such as academic researchers and medical schools as well as the government and this led to a biomedical community and eventually organized medicine. There was an uppermost 300 kHz segment of world allocation of the 10-meter band from 29.7 MHz to 30MHz that was removed from amateur radio in 1947 but in 1950s, a single-sideband modulation for HF voice communication was introduced. This was followed by the launch of the first orbital amateur radio satellite (OSCAR) which was the first of series amateur radio satel lites created worldwide. Post war economy led to further expansion of the television production, which had earlier started in the decade as a means of developing radar technology. Console and tabletop models emerged and Milton Berlke and Ed Sullivan were amongst the first TV stars in the late 1940s. The 1950s later become the golden age of television because a good number of people could afford TV in their homes   (Expert Reviews Staff Web). Key Influential Entrepreneurs in the Post World War II Boyer explains that David Sarnoff was an American pioneer in the radio and television industry who migrated to the US in 1900 and worked for Marconi Wireless Company (684-685). Sarnoff proposed a radio music box in 1915, this led to the popularly known radio broadcasting, and when Radio Corporation absorbed the Marconi firm in 1921, he later became the CEO between 1947 and 1970. He contributed a lot to the development of black and white as well as compatible color TV and later served as Dw ight in World War II as a communication adviser and an active figure in public affairs where he was a spokesperson for the broadcasting industry. After the WW II Americans wanted to indulge themselves with entertainment and Sarnoff introduced a television price at $375. The sales went so high from 175, 000 in 1947 to 7 million in 1950 with almost half carrying RCA name and Sarnoff estimated that almost 47% of Americans owned television sets by 1952.

Friday, 27 September 2019

Marketing 4050 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Marketing 4050 - Essay Example Marketing strategy aims for advertisers to maintain and increase customers for their product. The media on its part aim to be the advertisers and consumers favorite in covering the advert. The advert of alcohol promotion is essential and should be done regularly to keep consumers loyal. Many more consumers will prefer that drink to other liquor brands in the market. The ad quality influences the effectiveness it will have on the market (Ware, Baron and Edge). An ad structured in a persuasive, and credible manner will most certainly be more convincing to consumers. Ads have some consistent features that appeal to customers or discourage them. These include alcohol content percentage and drinking age limit. The alcohol content appeals to consumers according to their preference while the warning on age will limit those who are underage. The leading title article relates to the ad as it is on tax increase mostly on alcoholic drinks. This ad focuses on alcoholic consumers and those interested in the drink. It also targets at investors. The ad influences the reader to pledge its loyalty to it. There are many competitive ads competing both for space in the magazine and consumers. This is a smart investment because it does not only market the company’s product but also its image in

Thursday, 26 September 2019

Dances With Wolves Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Dances With Wolves - Essay Example shows a deep understanding and appreciation for the cultures he comes into contact with and goes so far as to adopt their way of life as superior to that of his own previous way of life. When the film opens, Lieutenant Dunbar is faced with the unpleasant choice of either having his wounded leg amputated or choosing to die with it still attached; as did so many other soldiers of his time. However, rather than choosing the amputation, Dunbar decides he will commit suicide by charging the lines of the enemy and dying in a hail of bullets. However, his plan does not go according to planned as his action has the effect of rallying the troops behind him and winning the battle. As a reward for his actions, Dunbar is offered a transfer to any unit or regiment he can choose. Dunbar chooses to move West away from the horrors of the Civil War and into the mystery of the frontier (Costner 1990). His frontier life is far from what he expected as he soon finds himself all alone at an abandoned base; completely cut off from the outside world. It is at this point that the film develops into the story of how Dunbar begins to come into contact with the Native Americans in the surrounding regions to that of the base in which he alone guards. Rather than being hostile to these natives, Dunbar seeks to strike up a relationship with them and engage them in a form of conversation (although his language skills are non-existent). Rather than viewing the Native Americans around the fort as natural born enemies, Dunbar is intrigued by their lifestyle, their curiosity, and the means by which they have sought to survive even in the face of continuous attacks from white frontiersmen. Dunbar becomes so taken by the culture and lifestyle of these Native Americans that he abandons his post and seeks to live a life among them. The story further develops as Dunbar returns to the fort to retrieve a notebook of valuable information he encounters his former colleagues who capture and beat

Wednesday, 25 September 2019

Consumer Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Consumer Behavior - Essay Example The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as how: The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products); The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media); The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome;   How consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer. â€Å"One "official" definition of consumer behavior is "The study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secur e, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society"  (Perner 2010). ... group (e.g., friend’s influence what kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization (people on the job make decisions as to which products the firm should use). Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how they are purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this may influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption.   The impact of consumer behavior on society is also of relevance. For example, aggressive marketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing of easy credit, may have serious repercussions for the national health and economy. Reasons for studying consumer behavior; To stay in business by attracting and retaining customers. To benefit from understanding consumer problems To establish competitive advantage The subject consumer behavior is very interesting. â€Å"Through the application of sociology, psychology and demographics, marketers can beg in to understand why consumers form attitudes and make decisions to purchase. Consumer-behavior studies inform marketers, advertisers and public agencies how product and service selection is influenced by personality, perception, values and beliefs† (Kirchheimer 2011). For marketing, these influences are studied in the context of demographics, which includes ethnicity, age, marital status, size of  family, income,  education  and employment. Perception: Is how information is collected and categorized. Perception is affected by the amount of exposure to a stimulus and by individual interpretation. Personality: Is a weak component of consumer behavior, Personality means a pattern of behavior founded on an individual’s outlook and internal traits. In this use, outlook means point of view and traits

Tuesday, 24 September 2019

Tourist in dangerous places Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Tourist in dangerous places - Research Paper Example Traveling in dangerous places has been a historically relevant activity to discovery and adventure and current tourists engage in travels that have risk, adventure, and discovery of new cultures which are not always taken with precautions to limit the risk in which they have immersed themselves. There has emerged a method of travel that provides for the same risk fulfillment that was once a part of the nature of Western civilization as they expanded their influence and territories into ’exotic’ locations. Exotic and dangerous places in the world still exist, creating levels of excitement and risk that can provide the adventurer with a great deal of elevated experience. In addition, travel to some locations are such that it is so dangerous as to be outside of the hope of experience for pleasure and would only be considered for its relevant edification. There are many forms of risky travel that can be considered, and a traveler should evaluate his or her need for the expe rience and skills required for the journey before attempting to visit some places within the world. Some of these types of dangerous travels can be seen through physically challenging venues. Mountains, the ocean, caves, and the arctic can all be considered for the potential risks involved in traveling to these locales. Skill sets are required for an individual to participate in the physically demanding nature of engaging the natural world through these types of places, thus eliminating the potential for these locations for a great number of people. However, this type of travel appeals to some risk takers, thus it is a popular form of tourism. Eco-tourism is involved in the development of this type of travel, engaging the tourist in designed experiences that provide context in which nature is confronted. Other venues, such as Mount Everest and cave diving, are done through self designed programs that require research and self confidence in developed required skills. Another form of dangerous travel can be seen through entry into countries that are not friendly or are experiencing internal conflict. Some nations in Africa, some parts of Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East may have political environments that do not lead the individual towards a safe and secure environment. In addition, some countries have a lack of control on crime, thus creating a more dangerous region and putting a tourist who is not prepared at risk. Therefore, whenever engaging in travel that includes another country, it is wise to know what risks are involved and how to best avert the potential of bad experiences. A simple example is the myth of not drinking the water in Mexico because there is bacteria that is untenable for the stomach unless one has grown up drinking it. This small risk can change the nature of travel if not prepared and educated on its potential effects. Travel to Third World Environments Travel, according to Mowforth and Munt, is a means of shaping world views, of understanding the ways in which different cultures and environments fit inot the global perspective (6). One of the ways in which travel impacts one’s experience is through the development of geographical imaginations. Through developments that provide context for understanding the world, through age, gender, nation of origin, and through factors that are representations of the identity, the geographical imag

Monday, 23 September 2019

Strategy Of Oil Spill Disaster In The Gulf Of Mexico Essay

Strategy Of Oil Spill Disaster In The Gulf Of Mexico - Essay Example In the month of April, the year 2010, a platform for deepwater drilling in the Gulf, located fifty miles from the Louisiana coast capsized and sank due to an explosion. Several attempts to seal the top the well continued to be futile necessitating huge volumes of oil to spill and spread to the shores. The spills reached as far as the marshes Louisiana. The company that was behind the oil-drilling venture was the British Petroleum. The effects of this disaster are tremendous and cut across several sectors ranging from the economy to the biological sustainability. The oil spillage threatened the livelihood of more than four hundred species of wildlife. The sea animals whose lives were most threatened includes tuna, whales, and shrimps together with several species of birds. The land animals most affected by the disaster were the white-tailed deer, gray fox several amphibians like the snapping turtle and the alligator. The economic costs arising from the spillage in the Gulf were huge (The Daily Green 2010, p.1). For instance, by June 2010, the government had paid $ 62 million as compensation claims to 26,500 the residents in the Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, the insurers will likely spend up to $ 1.5 billion in compensation. Close to 12, 000 residents of Louisiana are now jobless due to oil spills in the Gulf (The Daily Green 2010, p.1). For instance, by June 2010, the government had paid $ 62 million as compensation claims to 26,500 the residents in the Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, the insurers will likely spend up to $ 1.5 billion in compensation. Close to 12, 000 residents of Louisiana are now jobless due to oil spills in the Gulf (The Daily Green 2010, p.1). This is not the initial time the British Petroleum industry has had to confront a disaster. A refinery that the company owns in the city of Texas experienced a massive explosion in 2005.

Sunday, 22 September 2019

Taxation Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Taxation - Assignment Example Charles’s language of correspondence is English even though he understands a little bit of French having studied French as a subject in school. Charles Antoine’s Social Insurance Number (SIN) is 193-456-787. Latesa Kiki, who is Charles’s wife, works as a Social and Health Care Service provider in a local Health and Social Care facility in Montreal Quebec. Latesa’s net income for the year 2013 after claim after credits is $80,000. Her Social Insurance Number is 193-567-674.The amount of Universal Care Benefit (UCCB) from line 117 of Latesa’s income is $1200 while the amount of Universal Child Benefit repayment from the line 213 of her return is $800 Charles Antoine is paid $9000 per month as his salary by the bank He works for. Apart from this income, he received $150,100 from a rental property he had but sold it in 2013.Charles also runs a personal business in his neighborhood where his younger works for him as the operator of the venture. Fro the personal business, he is able to earn an average of $2000 per month in terms of income. Charles is a staunch member of his church and every month, he gives $300 to his church which is a registered charity in Canada under the federal and territory laws. From his income, several deductions are normally made per month. Charles contributes towards the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) and towards the Employment Insurance benefit. Apart from his church contribution, he also contributes $150 every month towards the social and service health acre facility where his wife works. This facility is also a registered charity organization which helps the elderly and the underprivileged in Montreal. To calculate the RRSP, it is important to know what Charles earned in the previous year in order to determine his RRSP deduction limit (Canadian Tax Calculator, 2014). Earned income includes the employment earnings (t4), rental income, net business income and alimony received and any other benefit.

Saturday, 21 September 2019

Concept of Demolition Man Essay Example for Free

Concept of Demolition Man Essay * The Hollywood film represents the danger of globalization and cultural and environmental homogeneity, standardization and sanitation. * Friedman argues that because globalization is creating a single marketplace, it is homogenizing consumption and culture and can run the risk of wiping out ecological and cultural diversity throughout the world. In the Cold War system, cultures didn’t interact as frequently or directly as they do today, where they are often offered up for global competition and comparison against one another. Diversity in Globalization * Friedman argues that because globalization is often associated with Americanization, countries need to develop strong cultural and environmental filters so they can interact with but not be overwhelmed and swallowed by the herd. He suggests the most important filter is the ability to â€Å"glocalize,† meaning a culture’s ability to absorb natural influences into their culture yet reject those that are alien—to assimilate aspects of globalization into your culture in a way that adds diversity without overwhelming. * Globalization will be sustainable as long as we manage these filters in a way that protects our culture while simultaneously getting the best out of others’ cultures. Methods for Greening Globalization * Mobilize the environmental entrepreneurs term coined by Keith Algers for an organization meant to stop the logging activities in the rainforest in Brazil while formulating a plan to avoid unemployment among these loggers. Looking at the bigger picture, it implies finding solution to the growing problems of compromise in the industrialized society that environmental protection and economic development can coexist together. * Environmentally Sound Production Methods – Corporations and shareholders should be pressured by the government to adapt new environmental policies. The government hitting companies over the head with both new regulations and new tax incentives to be green, and with SFC telling companies they have to start accurately portraying their environmental liabilities to shareholders—such as where they are being sued for dumping and what the cleaning up cost—there has been a paradigm shift. * Learning how to use globalization itself. Where globalization is an asset is in the fact that it is creating â€Å"Super-empowered environmentalist†, who are acting on their own, can now fight back rather effectively against both the Electronic Herd and governments. Thanks to the Internet, environmentalists in one country are quickly relaying how a multinational behaves in their country to environmentalists in other countries. Preventing cultural homogeneity * GlocalizationHhlksal;kl;ksdsl;adkls;adkals;d—the ability of a culture, when it encounters another strong cultures, to absorb influences that naturally fit into and can enrich that culture, to resist those things that are alien and to compartmentalize those things that, while different, can nevertheless be enjoyed and celebrated as different. * Unhelathy Glocalization—when you absorb something that isn’t part of your culture, doesn’t connect with anything latent in your culture, but you have so lost touch with your culture, you think it does. * Glocalism alone is not sufficient to protect indigenous cultures from globalization. Some hard filters are also needed. To begin with you need zoning laws, protected area laws and educational programs to preserve unique regions and a cultural heritage from insidious homogenous development.

Friday, 20 September 2019

Analysing Public Policy

Analysing Public Policy What is Public Policy? Public policy happens when the government tries to answer a public issue, such as healthcare, education, environmental issues, crime, transportation, foreign policy, and poverty and welfare. Public policy is whatever governments choose to do or what not to do. Whether it is local, state, or federal government they develop public policy by laws, regulations, decisions, and actions. So, behind every decision that is made there is always a process that takes place, setting the agenda, making decisions, formulation, implementation, and evaluation. So, once laws are established they are put into practice in the form of public policy. Public policy affects our quality of life and can also influence the quality of life for those in other countries. In order for public policy to work citizens must participate in the process. A lot of pressure that comes from the outside affects the creation of public policy whether it is for the better of the country or for the worst. Citizens groups as well as commercial groups put pressure on public policy to defend their interest. As lawmakers debate the making of policies and set them in place, it is important for citizens and outside groups to analyze the effects of the policy so that the wrong type of policies are not set into practice. Individuals and groups attempt to shape policy through education, advocacy, or mobilization of interest groups. There are three parts to public policy making: problem, players, and the policy. The problem is the issue that needs to be addressed. The players are the individuals and groups that are influential in forming and implementing a plan to address the problem in question. Policy is the course of action decided upon by the government and public. Public policies are widely open to influence and interpretation by non-governmental players, including those in the non-profit and private sectors. Policies are dynamic, responding to changes in the government and the public interest. What is Policy Analysis? Public policy analysis is determining which of several alternative policies will most achieve a given set of goals no matter the relationship between the policy and the goal. Policy analysis involves a primary concern with explanation rather than prescription. Also it is a sought out search for the cause and consequences of public policies. Furthermore, it is an effort to develop and test general propositions about the causes and consequences of public policy and to continue to accumulate reliable research findings of general relevance. Public policy analysis strives to define the problems addressed by a particular policy, assess the steps taken to address these problems and evaluate the intended and unintended effects. Policy analysis has the greatest potential to improve the policy making process when government decision makers use the results and findings to craft better policy. It occurs in political environment, in which policy makers, elected or otherwise, makes decisions about the allocation of public funds, power and resources. It requires insight, creativity, and imagination in identifying societal problems and describing them, in devising public policies that might alleviate them, and then in finding out whether these policies end up making things better or worst. It requires knowledge of economics, political science, public administration, sociology, psychology, laws, statistics, engineering, natural sciences, etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Policy analysis is an applied subfield of all of these traditional disciplines. The Six Models of Policy Analysis System Model The system model relies on concepts of information theory, especially feedback, input, and output, and conceives of the process as being essentially cyclical. Policy is originated, implemented, adjusted, re-implemented, and readjusted. The system model is concern with such things as: the significant variables and patterns in the public policy making system, what constitutes the black box of the actual policy making process, and the inputs, outputs and the feedback of the process. In the systems model of public policymaking and implementation, inputs are the demands, resources, and opposition. The outputs are goods, services, and symbols to public and other policymakers. The black box represents the conversion process. Institutional Model The institutional model focuses on the organizational chart of the government. It describes the arrangements and official duties of bureaus and departments, but customarily it has ignored the living linkages between them. The institutional model is interested in the constitutional provisions, administrative and common law and similar legalities. Things that are of less concern are the behavioral connections between a department and the public policy coming from it. Neo-Institutional Model The neo-institutional model is an attempt to categorize public policies according to policymaking subsystems. For example Theodore J. Lowi classifies policies by four arenas of power: redistributive, distributive, constituent, and regulative. Distributive policy includes for example agricultural subsidies. Constituent policy arena includes reapportionment of legislature. Regulative policy includes elimination of fraudulent advertising. Last, redistributive policy includes for example, the progressive income tax. Organized Anarchy Model The organized anarchy model has three streams that flow largely independently of one another and constitutes the policymaking process. First, is the problem stream, which involves focusing the publics and policymakers attention on a particular social problem, defining the problem, and either applying a new policy to the resolution of the problem or letting the problem fade from sight. The second stream is the political stream that the governmental agenda or in other words, the list of issues or problems to be resolved is formed. This formulation occurs as the result of the interaction of major forces, such as the national mood, the perspective and the clout of organized interests and the dynamics of government itself, including personnel turnover, the settling of jurisdictional disputes among agencies and branches. The primary participants in the formulation of government agenda are high-level political appointees and the presidents staff members of Congress, the media, interest grou ps, those associated with elections, parties, and campaigns and the general public opinion. Third is the policy stream. It is in the policy stream that the decision agenda or alternative specification is formulated. The major participants in the formulation of the decision agenda are career public administrators, academic researchers and consultants, congressional staffers, the Office of Management and Budget and interest groups. Group Model Another way of describing the group model is the hydraulic thesis, in which the polity is considered as a system of forces and pressures acting as a system of forces and pressures acting and reacting to one another in the formulation of public policy. Normally the group model is associated with the legislature rather than the bureaucracy. Agency administrators grow increasingly to distinguish between policies that are beneficial to the interest of the public and policies of the groups being regulated. The group model goes by the saying that what is good for the group is good for the nation, in the eyes of the regulators. Elite Model The elite or mass model contends that a policymaking and policy executing elite is able to act in an environment characterized by apathy and information distortion, and thereby govern a largely passive mass. Policy flows downward from the elite to the mass and prevailing public policies reflect the elite values. The Policy Analysis Process Verify, define and detail the problem This is the most important step of the policy analysis process because there are many instances where the objectives are not clear or even contradictory from one another; a good political analysis will have will have clearly identified the problem that is to be resolved. This is the mandatory process that determines how efficient and effective the outcome of the whole process will be. The analyst must question both the interested parties involved as well as their agendas of the outcome. In this process you want to state the problem, determine the extent and magnitude of the problem eliminate irrelevant material, and make a quick estimate of resources required to deal with the issue. Establish evaluation criteria This step is important in order to compare measure and select among the alternatives, relevant evaluation data must be established. In this process it must be considered cost, net benefit, effectiveness, efficiency, equity, administrative ease, legality, and political acceptability. Economic benefits must be considered in evaluating the policy. How the policy will harm or benefit a particular group or groups will depend on the number of options available. Political and other variables go together with the evaluation criteria to be followed. Most of the time the client, or person or group, interested in the policy analysis will dictate the direction or evaluation criteria to follow. This step, deals with what the important goals are and how they will be measured. It clarifies the goals values, and objectives. It looks at the cost and benefits, effectiveness, equity, legality and political acceptability. Identify alternative policies In this third step understanding what is being sought out is important. In order to generate alternatives, it becomes important to have a clear understanding of the problem and how to go about it. Possible alternatives include the â€Å"do nothing approach† (status quo), and any others that can benefit from the outcome. Combining alternatives generates better solutions not thought of before. Relying on past experiences from the other groups or policy analysis, helps to create a more thorough analysis and understanding. It is important not to settle prematurely on a certain number of options when it comes to this step; many options must be considered before settling into a reduced number of alternatives. Brainstorming, researching, experimenting, writing scenarios, or concept mapping will help to find new alternatives that will help reach the optimal solution. This step considers a wide range of options, consults with experts, and redefines the problem if necessary. Evaluate alternative policies In this step it becomes necessary to evaluate how each possible alternative benefits the criteria previously established. Additional data needs to be collected in analyzing the different levels of influence: the economical, political and social dimensions of the problem. These dimensions are analyzed through quantitative and qualitative analysis, which is the benefits and cost per alternative. New aspects of the problem may be found to be of importance and even different from the original statement, after political questions in obtaining the goals are analyzed. Several fast interactions through the policy analysis may be efficient and effective than a single detailed one. What this means is that the efficiency is greatly increased when several projects are analyzed and evaluated rather than just one in great detail, allowing for a wider scope of possible solutions. This process considers selecting appropriate methods and applying them correctly. It also estimates expected outcomes, e ffects, and impacts of each policy alternative. Display and distinguish among alternative policies In this step, comparison schemes are used to summarize virtues, they are a great help in distinguishing among several options; scenarios with quantitative methods, qualitative analysis, and complex political considerations can be melded into general alternatives containing many from the original ones. In this process the comparison and distinction of each alternative must be looked at against the economic, political, legal, and administrative ramification of each option. Political analysis is a major factor of decision of distinction among the choices; display the positive effects and negative effects interested in implementing the policy. This political approach will ultimately analyze how the number of participants will improve or diminish the implementation. It will also criticize on how the internal cooperation of the interested units or parties will play an important role in the outcome of the policy analysis. Mixing two or more alternatives is a very common and practiced approa ch in attaining a very reasonably justified policy analysis. Monitor the implemented policy This process looks to see if the policy is actually having an impact. Even after a policy has been implemented, there may be some doubt whether the problem was resolved appropriately and even whether the selected policy is being implemented properly. These concerns require that policies and programs be maintained and monitored during implementation to assure that they do not change for unintentionally, to measure the impact that they are having, to determine whether they are having the impact intended, and to decide whether they should be continued, modified or terminated. References Daneke, G. A., Steiss, A. W. (1980, August 13). Administrative Policy Analysis, Budgeting, Implementation, and Evaluation. Retrieved July 2009, 29, from Hall, S. (n.d.). Public Policy analysis. Retrieved july 29, 2009, from eHow: Patton, C. V. (1999, April 22). Social Reasearch Methods. Retrieved July 29, 2009, from Steps for a Successful Policy Analysis:

Thursday, 19 September 2019

Euthanasia and Futile Care :: Euthanasia Physician Assisted Suicide

Euthanasia and "Futile Care" Imagine visiting your 85-year-old mother in the hospital after she has a debilitating stroke. You find out that, in order to survive, she requires a feeding tube and antibiotics to fight an infection. She once told you that no matter what happened, she wants to live. But the doctor refuses further life-sustaining treatment. When you ask why, you are told, in effect, "The time has come for your mother to die. All we will provide is comfort care." Sound far-fetched? It's not. It's already happening. Just as doctors once hooked people up to machines against their will, now many bioethicists advocate that doctors be permitted to refuse life-sustaining treatment that a patient wants but that they deem "futile" or "inappropriate." Alarmingly, hospitals in California and throughout the country have begun to implement these "futile-care" policies that state, in effect: "We reserve the right to refuse service." Medical and bioethics journals for several years kept up a drumbeat advocating the implementation of medical futility policies that hospitals -- for obvious reasons -- don't publicize. The mainstream news media have generally ignored the threat. As a consequence, members of the public and their elected representatives remain in the dark as "futilitarians" become empowered to hand down unilateral death sentences. Indeed, futile-care policies are implemented so quietly that no one knows their extent. No one has made a systematic study of how many patients' lives have been lost or whether futile-care decisions were reached according to hospital policies or the law. The idea behind futile care goes like this: The patient wants life- sustaining treatment; the physician does not believe the quality of the patient's life justifies the costs to the health institution or the physical and emotional burdens of care; therefore, the doctor is entitled to refuse further treatment (other than comfort care) as "futile" or "inappropriate." Treatments withheld under this policy might include antibiotics to treat infection, medicines for fever reduction, tube feeding and hydration, kidney dialysis or ventilator support. Of course, physicians have never been -- nor should they be -- required to provide medical interventions that provide no medical benefit. For example, if a patient demands chemotherapy to treat an ulcer, the physician should refuse. Such a "treatment" would have no medical benefit. But this kind of "physiological futility," as it is sometimes called, is not what modern futile-care theory is all about.

Wednesday, 18 September 2019

Comparing Debt Financing and Equity Financing Essay -- Financing Finan

There are two basic ways of financing for a business: Debt financing and equity financing. Debt financing is defined as 'borrowing money that is to be repaid over a period of time, usually with interest" (Financing Basics, 1). The lender does not gain any ownership in the business that is borrowing. Equity financing is described as "an exchange of money for a share of business ownership" (Financing Basics, 1). This form of financing allows the business to obtain funds without having to repay a specific amount of money at any particular time. There are also a few different instruments that could be defined as either debt or equity. One such instrument is stock options that an employee can exercise after so many years with the company. Either using the debt or equity method, or a combination of the two methods can be used to account for stock options or other instruments with the similar characteristics. There are pros and cons to deciding to use either of these methods. First I will discuss the pros of using the debt or equity methods. One pro of using the debt method is that it "does not entail 'selling' their equity, but instead works by 'borrowing' against it" (Financing Using, 1). So the company could account for future stock options by assuming that employees will cash the option in, and, in the books, it will look as if they simply have a liability. Another pro with the equity method is that the company is receiving money, and it does not have to pay the money back. In the end the investing company will normally make money on the investment, but it will come in the form of dividends and/or selling the stock back. There are also a few cons in accounting for these instruments are either debt of equity. "Excessive debt financing may impair your (the company's) credit rating and your ability to raise more money in the future (Financing Basics, 1). If a company has too much debt, it could be considered too risky and unsafe for a creditor to lend money. Also with excessive debt, a business could have problems with business downturns, credit shortages, or interest rate increases. "Conversely, too much equity financing can indicate that you are not making the most productive use of your capital; the capital is not being used advantageously as leverage for obtaining cash" (Financing Basics, 1). A low amount of equity shows that the owne... ...n Shares 400 This would be a very efficient way of accounting for the stock options. There will not be many changes in amounts when the employee has the option. This would be the entry for five years, and then the employee will have their option. Below is the journal entries for both decisions: Employee takes the cash Common Shares 2000 Accounts Payable 500 Cash 2500 Employee takes the stock Accounts Payable 500 Common Shares 500 Again, both methods clear out the accounts payable. Also the employee is receiving the cash or common shares in the right amount. Debt and equity methods are important decisions when deciding what to do with an instrument like stock options. All three methods, debt, equity, or a combination, are helpful in keeping the books correct and fair until the employee exercises their option. The best method in my mind is the combination of methods. It best shows were the money will go on average before the option is decided on. However the other two methods are also important considering the pros and cons of each decision. No clear answer, however, will ever be known as long as accounting exists.

Tuesday, 17 September 2019

Hevea brasiliensis:The Rubber Tree :: Botany

Hevea brasiliensis:The Rubber Tree During the Age of Exploration many people were sent out to seek unknown plant species that might serve as raw material, remedy, or ornament. Of all the great feats of that era of botanical discovery, none was more imposing than that of the domestication of rubber. New World inhabitants had shown rubber, which they obtained from several tropical plant species, to early explorers, including Columbus. Since it was an unstable product, it remained for more than three centuries a mere curiosity. Then, in 1839, it was found that through treatment with sulfur and heat (vulcanization), rubber's elastic properties could be made more permanent. (1) Hevea brasiliensis is the source of virtually all the world's rubber production. Cutting the bark of this tree releases the latex which is then collected, preserved, and stabilized. The latex is located in the inner bark of the tree and flows in the vessels of the tree. Latex is thought to be a defense against insect predators for the tree. (1) Hevea brasiliensis was first found in the Amazon basin. The rubber trade became a mainstay of the Brazilian economy, providing at its height almost 40 % of its export revenues. It was not long before the idea was conceived of domesticating rubber. However, Brazil was not the site of the successful commercialization of rubber. Rubber cultivation was, instead, transferred to Southeast Asia. Soon abundant and cheap, rubber was put to thousands of uses. Its reduced cost was an important factor in the emergence of a mass market of automobiles; from two-thirds to three-quarters of the demand for rubber soon came from the makers of tires and tubes for motor vehicles. (1) After tires, latex products, footwear, belts and hoses, and wire cables are the most important uses for rubber. (3) Rubber is harvested in Africa, Central and South America, and in Asia, the latter accounting for greater than 90% of production. There are 11 species of Hevea. Hevea brasiliensis is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family (spurge family). Although not limited to the Euphorbiaceae, latex production is one of its distinguishing characteristics. (7) The plants of the Euphorbiaceae family are mostly monoecious herbs, shrubs, and trees, sometimes succulent and cactus-like, and comprise one of the largest families of plants with about 300 genera and 7,500 species that are further characterized by the frequent occurrence of milky sap. (6) The flowering and pollination of the Hevea brasiliensis tree are also distinguishing characteristics of this plant.

Monday, 16 September 2019

Antigone Essay

Remember those people who always thought they were right, and they always ended up in trouble for it? I Sophocles’ play Antigone, the main characters Antigone and Creon show how being so hubris can be tragic to your life. Set back in ancient Greece an epic battle takes place and brothers end up killing each other. One was allowed a proper burial, yet Polyinesis was not. Antigone felt disappointed by this and decided to bury them yet Creon the newly appointed king did not appreciate the rule breaking. Due to the fact that Antigone and creon exhibited excessive pride, their lives were ruined. Antigone’s arrogance and brashness ultimately led to her death. For example, on Creon’s first day as king he made a decree that no one should bury Polyneisis body. When Antigone heard this, she went to Ismene and asked for her help; yet Ismene refused and called her a criminal. Antigone still disagreed, â€Å"But I will bury him; and if I must die, I say that this crime is holy; I shall lie down with him in death†(673,55-57) This proved that Antigone was cocky and she was sort of stating that all her wrong doings are â€Å"holy†; she is referring to herself as always being right. This affected her though distorting her view on life. In addition to her argument with Ismene, Antigone then was caught in the act of burying Polyniesis and was brought in and questioned by Creon. â€Å"And you Antigone, with your head hanging – do you confess this thing†(679, 53) When Antigone didn’t deny her crime and boasted to the king and the elders, It proves how narcissistic that she is. If she would have not been so boastful I doubt that Croen would have been so harsh to Antigone. Furthermore, Creon then calls in Ismene to protest against her crime as well. Creon started o believe that she helped Antigone to plot against him. Ismene then lied and said she did help to Antigone’s surprise. Antigone become outraged and denied her hand in the deed. Ismene is displeased in antigone’s punishment, â€Å"Do you refuse me, Antigone? I want to die with you; I too have a duty that I must discharge to the dead†(681, 138). Antigone was then enraged further and rebelled against Ismene, â€Å"You shall not lessen my death by sharing it†(681, 139) Antigone is showing self centered and concided she was. She believed that she was so important because she did the right thing by the gods that no one should die except her because she was special. However, Antigone was not the only major character with this flaw. This proves how arrogance can really damage anyone’s life just like it did to Antigone and Creons’. Pride and the excess of it played a big role in this play, being the tragic flaw of both main characters; arrogance is not only a big part of this play but also our history, there will always be people who can never be wrong. Many people are just like Creon and Antigone, Always thinking they are right. Is your life headed for a fate just like Antigone’s plot?

American Progress

John Gast’s painting, â€Å"American Progress†, illustrates many depictions of the early movement and development of the United States. This particular painting defines uniqueness and character throughout. Looking at it geographically the angel portrayed in the middle is floating westward as though she is exemplifying the Westward Expansion. She has the â€Å"Star of Empire† imprinted on her forehead, which better portrays the idea of her trying to move westward. This painting is a great description of our country’s economical progress and expansion. Gast artistically explains the present day United States as nice cities along rivers with big buildings and churches along the right edge of this painting. This scene is also shown as being happy and awakening because of the bright sun rays being shown down upon it. The city is supposed to represent a growing city along the mighty Mississippi River. You are able to see the evolution of transportation through boats and railroads. The three main intercontinental railways are shown departing from this city, and the beautiful angel in the middle is carrying the telegraph cable which eventually linked the nation together. She is also carrying with her some type school book, which to me represents intellectual ideas being spread throughout the country. In the background behind her lies many rolling hills and plush green grass. There is not many trees in this portrait, but the snow capped mountains on the left and the great plains on the right depict a great deal of land diversity from coast to coast. There are also many cattle, Indians, wild horses, bears, and other wild game trying to flee her approach towards the west and eventually into the storms and waves of the Pacific coast. Although she seems very divine in appearance some may take her intentions as revolting. Her central idea seems as though she is trying to spread the economical progress throughout the entire United States. Emotionally this is a very strong painting because of its detail and significance. When I first looked at this painting it made me think of Manifest Destiny. The angel in the middle attempting to emigrate westward defines the meaning of manifest destiny. Many thought it was God’s belief that the United States would expand from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast. I also felt another tie to my previous assumption when I noticed the star on her forehead. I felt it had great importance so I began to acknowledge her surroundings and I realized it was the â€Å"Star of Empire†, which signifies westward movement as well. The star is a bright golden color, almost identical to rays of light being exposed upon new land. She is wearing a long, swaying white robe which is also significant because the color white signifies freedom. Her bright golden, blonde hair also signifies the presence of God to me. Her presence in this painting is not just for beauty but for great importance. I have always felt strongly about the spread of equality throughout our nation, and to me it seems as though she is trying to spread the superior life-style across the United States. The book in her arm represents that she is trying to spread intelligence and the teaching of literacy. It was very rare in the past for many people to be able to both read and write, and with the spread of civilization trying to take place it is very important that she also spread the gift of teaching. I also believe that she is trying to spread the connection of communication throughout the country by carrying the telegraph cord in her other hand. This became a very important facet of our country, because many of the connections and deals made over time would not have been made possible without communication. When I looked more towards the left side of the painting I noticed it was very dark and gloomy. Coincidently that happened to be the way everyone was fleeing, which in my mind represents everyone trying to escape freedom and return to normalcy among themselves. These men, women, and animals look as though they are afraid of the angel hovering over them, but ideally they are trying to escape normal civilization. This painting portrays many different themes and central ideas depending on which way it is observed. I feel from my point of view that I was able to interpret that the theme is based on moving forward in society. As seen on the right side of this portrait, the eastern United States progressed sooner than the west, and many frontiersmen are afraid of this new lifestyle. It seems as though the angel is trying to help everyone move forward and develop a new way of living and become more acquainted with this innovative way of living. No one copes very well with change, and like-wise neither did the Indians, farmers, and all of the other wild animals. These individuals had to manage survival with whatever nature skills they had. The mountainous region on the left side of the painting is covered with dark, rainy clouds and white snow caps. This symbolizes harsh climates and bad conditions for any type of living. Some of the animals may not be used to the western climates and may not be able to adapt quickly enough before facing the edge of extinction. The angel present in the center of the painting is able to help spread this central idea of moving on by her presence and what she brings with her. The coloration of her long, curly hair exemplifies traits from Jesus Christ. Her intentions are as His would be, and that is to create happiness and equality throughout. The gleaming star on her forehead also ties into the main theme through the concept of Manifest Destiny. I believe the star has the most significance of any object in the painting when referring to the main theme. The principle of the star represents the same significance as the main theme; people are trying to move forward in society. This entire painting depicts the importance of this exploration to the western United States. Everything is explained in perfect artistic form from the bright, sunshiny city on the right to the dark, gloomy coast on the left. The depiction of the angel in the middle is obviously the most important characteristic of this painting, but she also brings a lot of debate for whether or not she is subsiding good or bad influence on our country. There are many details and translations that can be looked at from many different angles depending on the person’s train of thought. I have explained in every detail the way I feel about this painting and the way I sensed each direction of the artist’s feelings. John Gast has a great connotation of each perception in his painting, and uses many features to depict different portions of his famous artwork. Many great Americans can agree with the central concept of this painting and will be able to grasp the implications behind each item portrayed in the painting. I personally feel that this painting is well thought out and had great meaning behind each aspect.

Sunday, 15 September 2019

Disadvantage of This Method of Observing of Childeren

Assignment task: The whole task must be completed in order to achieve the unit. You must show an understanding of diversity and inclusive practice throughout the assignment. You work in an early years setting with children aged 4 years. A meeting is to be held to discuss the children’s social development. The children in this group will soon be moving to a different setting. 1. Describe the expected stage of social development of children aged 4 years and children aged 5 years The expected stage of social development of children aged 4 years| |The expected stage of social development of children aged 5 years| | 2. Consider how and why practitioners observe children in the setting: Describe ONE suitable method of observing and recording the social development of children aged 5 years| | Explain ONE advantage of this method of observing children| | Explain ONE disadvantage of this method of observing children| | Explain how observations can be used to support the development of children| | Explain why it is important to understand the pattern of development of children from birth to 16 years| | 3.Identify the main influences that may affect the social development of children| | 4. Describe how snack and meal times can support the social development of development| | 5. Write about how children’s development may be affected when they experience transitions and ways the practitioner can support children through transitions Write about how children’s development may be affected when they experience transitions| | Write about ways the practitioner can support children through transitions| | 6. Reflects on the reasons why everyday care routines are important in early years group settings| |

Saturday, 14 September 2019

Heart/ a&P/ Nursing

Chapter 12 A flat macular hemorrhage is called a(n): Purpura Risk factors that may lead to skin disease and breakdown include: a lifetime of environmental trauma. What term refers to a linear skin lesion that runs along a nerve route? Zosteriform The components of a nail examination include: contour, consistency, and color. An example of a primary lesion is a(n): urticaria. A scooped out, shallow depression in the skin is called a/an: erosion. Chapter 19The first heart sound is produced by the: closure of the AV valves. Which of the following guidelines may be used to identify which heart sound is S1? S1 coincides with the carotid artery pulse. Which of the following cardiac alterations occurs during pregnancy? An increase in cardiac volume and a decrease in blood pressure Which of the following is an appropriate position to have the patient assume when auscultating for extra heart sounds or murmurs? Roll toward the left sideThe leaflets of the tricuspid and mitral valves are anchore d by __________________ to the _________________, which are embedded in the ventricular floor. chordae tendineae; papillary muscles The ability of the heart to contract independently of any signals or stimulation is due to: automaticity. When auscultating the heart of a newborn within 24 hours after birth, the examiner hears a continuous sound that mimics the sound of a machine. This finding most likely indicates: an expected sound caused by nonclosure of the ductus arteriosus. You can read also Coronary Artery Disease Nursing Care PlanA bruit heard while auscultating the carotid artery of a 65-year-old patient is caused by: turbulent blood flow through the carotid artery. The jugular venous pressure is an indirect reflection of the: heart's efficiency as a pump. The semilunar valves separate the: ventricles from the arteries. Chapter 20 One of the leg's deep veins is the: popliteal. ?Arteriosclerosis refers to: thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls. ?Palpable inguinal lymph nodes are: normal if small (less than 1 cm), movable, and nontender. In pulsus paradoxus: beats have weaker amplitude with respiratory inspiration and stronger amplitude with expiration. ?Lymphedema is: the swelling of an extremity caused by an obstructed lymph channel. ?A water-hammer â€Å"Corrigan† pulse is associated with: aortic valve regurgitation. The cervical nodes drain the: head and neck. In young children, the thymus gland: produces T lymphocytes. Cla udication is caused by: arterial insufficiency. The patient has severe bilateral lower extremity edema. The most likely cause is: heart failure.

Friday, 13 September 2019

Final Exam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Final Exam - Essay Example Connelly (2010) gave many reasons to support his argument. He states that In his book ‘Congressional Government’ Wilson’s suggestion on American politics were incomplete and were not fully evolved to a certain extent. Even though he stated that â€Å"radical defect† (Connelly, 2010, 119) of the constitutional system is separation of powers he did not tackle or changed the fundamental flaw of separation of legislative and executive powers of American Constitution. Wilson suggested that â€Å"the cure for the friction of the separation of powers can be found in the fusion of party government† (Connelly, 2010, 119), however Connelly (2010) was of the opinion that he disregarded the separation of powers’ potentiality for fission. ... According to Connelly even though Wilson was a good politician and political scientist to point out the defects of the constitutional systems he lacked the perception to understand its strengths (Connelly, 2010). Even though Wilson stood out as a worthy opponent to James Madison federalist view, questioned and raised the defects of pluralist system, yet his idea of pure party government was not feasible under the system of separation of powers however it might have been possible within House of Representatives with majority according to Connelly (2010). Therefore Connelly opined that Woodrow Wilson’s project was doomed to failure. 2. How might Tocqueville explain the objectives of Piven & Cloward’s project to especially target the poor in voter registration drives? (minimum 300 words). Tocqueville (1838, 1) in his book ‘Democracy in America’ stated that â€Å"in United States even religion of most of the citizens is republican, since it submits the truths of the other world to private judgment, as in politics the care of their temporal interests in abandoned to the good sense of the people†. He further states that republican ideas are so ingratiated into Americans that they become habits, opinions and ultimately recognized formally as laws. To change republican’s notions hijacking the ideals of American and its democracy, Tocqueville (1838) suggests revolutionizing the whole society. He thinks that it can happen only with consistent efforts and series of events over a period of time with opposite opinions that can substitute this process. He also opines that in America, to destroy the republican ideology a difficult social process

Thursday, 12 September 2019

Digital Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Digital Marketing - Essay Example In the past Clarks has overcome challenges such as volatile market conditions, lack of financial flexibility as well as questionable planning and today, through extensive employment of digital marketing, Clarks is one of the largest private companies in the united kingdom and with massive global presence (Jones, 2012 p, 192-193). According to Tran (2012), Clarks’ products have a good reputation for high quality and are available in the latest fashions. The products have a good reputation for high quality and are available in the latest fashions. In the changing footwear industry, Clarks always comes with refreshing brands. The launch of online business has been a success for the company in building its international brand. Clarks has three main distinctive products that include the Desert Boot, Wallabee and desert Trek. The main feature for Clarks shoes is that they have unique comfort. Clarks designs and manufactures shoes that are uniquely styled, comfortable and of premium quality. Its concept of comfort in footwear dates back to 1960 when the company designed the Moccasin-inspired Wallabee. It was the most comfortable shoe in the world. Today, the Wallabees and the iconic desert Boots still sell at the company stores. Today, Clarks shoes that classified into different categories. They include Clarks walking shoes, Clarks’ casual shoes as well as Clarks business casual shoes. There are many other unstructured collections of shoes for men, women, boys and girls. The company’s product line includes boots, slippers, sandals, casual and sport shoes as well as bags (Jones, 2012 p, 192-193). Digital marketing strategy had been a drive towards the realization of massive digital presence for the company. It all begun in 2010 after the appointment of the current CEO, Melissa Potter, who drove the re-organization of the company’s business operations. Most importantly he launched online business for the company, and it has made Clarks a

Wednesday, 11 September 2019

Hospital Administartion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Hospital Administartion - Essay Example Within the context of what was previously mentioned, Sentara offers a variety of services, for patients ranging from newborn to elderly, and in almost every field. Sentara has also focused on providing first aid, as it pioneered the first air ambulance service in the region called Nightingale, as well as implementing new protocols in 2000 that dramatically improved the survival rate and lowered the effects of stroke. Also, in 2006, it implemented the 12-Lead EKG system that enabled doctors in Sentara hospitals to receive EKG's from paramedics on route to the hospital. While providing both inpatient and outpatient services, it should be mentioned that Sentara has focused the past years on several fields, improving their methods and technology. These fields include oncology, cardiology and urology. Oncology is an ever developing field, and Sentara managed to develop their methods and expand the scope of their treatments to provide the best care for its customers. In 2000, it implemented a computer-aided detection system for breast cancer, revealing cancers earlier, and therefore improving the effectiveness of treatments. It also implemented several systems in 2002 for a better effectiveness of radiation treatments, such as stereotactic radio surgery, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and brain wafers, all with the purpose of effectively delivering chemotherapy and radiation treatments to tumors without damaging surrounding tissue. In addition, in 2005 it is the first healthcare network in the region to use the recently approved FDA chemotherapy ViaCirqO method for treating abdominal cancers. Sentara also implemented certain revolutionary surgical techniques in treating cancers. In 2002, the Zeus surgical robot was used to treat prostate cancer, making small incisions and m inimizing scars. From 2004-2007 has been implementing the Da Vinci surgical robotic system that has been implemented in several aspects of thoracic, urinary and oncologic surgery, reaching the number of 500 surgeries performed in 2007 since its implementation. As cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States, Sentara has also focused on perfecting the procedures and machinery involved in treatment of such diseases. Procedures like transmyocardial revacscularization that increases the blood flow to the heart is beating-heart bypass surgery is one of the many techniques utilized by the physicians. In 2002, Sentara performed the first adult congenital atrial septal defect interventional repair. In 2004, this procedure was improved even further, by pioneering a new transcatheter technique, reducing patient's recovery time from 6 weeks to 2-3 days. It also pioneered several new devices in the region, such as the HeartMate II, which is a device assisting in transplants in 2005, and a latest in CT and MRI technology in 2007 in order to better detect cardiac tumors, septal defects and the percent of damage after a heart attack. Urology is also one of the more prominent areas of healthcare that Sentara focuses on. They provide the InterStim therapy, which is a rare procedure throughout the hospitals in US, and just recently made available for patients. It is also the healthcare