Wednesday, 31 July 2019
Introduction When she is not working as the UN Goodwill Ambassador, sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll be acting or directing another film, or looking after her six adorable children. a. Today I will be speaking about the amazing Angelina Jolie, my inspiration in so many aspects of life and a truly amazing woman. b. I will cover three main areas with regards to her life andÃ accomplishments. My first point will be about her career and family. Second, I will be mentioning her involvement in various worldwide humanitarian activities. Finally, I will also mention her support for medical health.Ã (Insert Connective: First, I will give a brief introduction to the life of Angelina JolieÃ¢â¬ ¨ Identify type: Transitions) I.Ã Body Ã¢â¬â (include citations of sources) Angelina Jolie Voight was born on June 4th, 1975. She started acting at a young age and soon became a very successful actress. You may have seen her act in films such as Mr. and Mrs. Smith and Maleficent. a. She is also an accomplished film director and has won various awards in the film industry, including Academy Awards, Screen Actors Guild Awards and Golden Globe Awards. (Hollywood Life, Angelina Jolie) b. In her personal life, she is married to fellow actor Brad Pitt. i. They have 6 children, of whom three are adopted, and three are their own biological children. ii. Angelina Jolie is a strong supporter for adoption of children from all over the world, and her support can be seen in her actions. 1. Three of her children were adopted from Cambodia, Ethiopia and Vietnam c. The adoption of her first child from Cambodia bridged the change of her image from ordinary actress to humanitarian worker, which she further developed in the following years. (Insert Connective: Now that I have spoken about Angelina JolieÃ¢â¬â¢s career asÃ an actress as well as her participation in overseas adoption, I will now speak about her humanitarian work. identify type: Signposting) II.Ã In an interview, Angelina Jolie mentioned that she was first exposed to what other people around the world faced in 2001, when filming in Cambodia. (UNHCR, Fact Sheet) d. After seeing the suffering in Cambodia, Angelina Jolie contacted the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and offered her help. This truly kick-started her humanitarian efforts in the world, as she was then named a UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador, with the aim to focus on refugees and displaced people during conflict. iii.She has since visited over 30 countries during her time as a ambassador. iv. She has been brave in the locations she has visited. 2. For example she visited Sudan during the internal conflict, Chad during the civil war as well as Iraq and Libya during the Libyan revolution. e. Angelina Jolie has also set up and financed many charity organisations, such as the Maddox-Jolie-Pitt Foundation, dedicated to community development and environmental conservation in Cambodia. (MJPAsia) All of this intensive humanitarian work has earned her the status as youngest recipient of the Jean Hersholt Award for humanitarian activities in the Academy of Motion Picture Arts. (The Star, Humanitarian Work) (Insert Connective: My third and final point will cover Angelina JolieÃ¢â¬â¢s support for physical and mental health in women identify type: Sign posting) III.Ã In a New York Times article titled Ã¢â¬Å"My Medical ChoiceÃ¢â¬ , Angelina Jolie made headlines across the world when she announced that she underwent a double mastectomy so she could prevent chances of breast cancer. (Nytimes, My Medical Choice) f. This courageous choice was made due to the fact that she carried a gene which increased the risk of both Ovarian and Breast cancer. (Breast Cancer Screening, The Guardian) g. This choice raised a new awareness of people suffering from breast cancer, as well as the various options women faced with the disease. h. She also revealed that she had battled anorexia and self harm earlier in her life, and has openly supported various charities with regards to mental health and depression in youth and adults. II.Ã Conclusion Angelina Jolie has accomplished so much in her life, and has become a role model not only for her own children but also for so many of us in the world. a. She has used her celebrity status to do humanitarian work and inspire many people. I will conclude my speech with a quote by Angelina Jolie, which I find inspirational and relevant to our lives. Ã¢â¬Å"No matter what you have gone through in your youth, it is about who you choose to be in life. You can define your own destiny. You can be stronger than a very difficult past and overcome it.Ã¢â¬ (SMH, Angelina Jolie Interview) Thank you very much, and I hope you have also come to appreciate Angelina Jolie as an amazing and inspirational person. Bibliography (use APA / MLA style) Hollywood Life (2012, April 21). Angelina Jolie. hollyoodlife.com. Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http://hollywoodlife.com/celeb/angelina-jolie/ UNHCR (2009, November 13) Angelina Jolie Fact Sheet. unhcr.org. Retrieved September 12, 2014 from http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49db77906.html The Star (2013, Nov 18) Angelina Jolie receives her Jean Hersholt Humanitarian award. thestar.com. Retrieved September 12, 2014) from http:// www.thestar.com/entertainment/stargazing_blog/2013/11/angelina_jolie_receives_her_jean_hersholt_humanitarian_award.html Nytimes (2013, May 14) My Medical Choice. nytimes.com Retrieved September 11th, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/14/opinion/my-medicalchoice.html?_r=0 Ingham, A. (2014, August 18). Breast Cancer Screening on the Rise Since Angelina Jolie. guardianlv.com. Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http:// guardianlv.com/2014/08/breast-cancer-screening-on-the-rise-since-angelinajolie/ Maddox Jolie Pitt Asia. (2008, May 2). MJPAsia. http://www.mjpasia.org Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http://www.mjpasia.org Lifetime TV (2014, April 29) Angelina Jolie Biography lifetimetv.co.uk/Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http://www.lifetimetv.co.uk/biography/ biography-angelina-jolie Sydney Morning Herald (2011, December 16) Angelina Jolie Interview Kung Fu Panda 2 smh.com.au Retrieved September 12, 2014 from http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/celebrity/angelina-jolie-proud-to-be-likepo-20111216-1oxzg.html
Tuesday, 30 July 2019
In Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck portrays messages to the reader through various techniques, including the vivid animal imagery presented throughout the novella, most notably in Chapters 1 and 6. However, his most potent form of message conveying is through his use of symbolism. Interweaving light imagery and exercising characters as symbols into the text furthers the development of integral themes and plotlines throughout the turbulent story. From the Ã¢â¬Å"deep and green Salinas RiverÃ¢â¬ to the Ã¢â¬Å"right hand that had held the gunÃ¢â¬ , SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s utilization of symbols contributes to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s overall appreciation of the chaotic book, highlighting recurring themes such as loneliness. As was stated in the introduction, Steinbeck employs characters as symbols. The most familiar example of this is old Candy. Candy is a significant figure in Of Mice and Men, due to the likenesses between him and George. Ã¢â¬Å"I ainÃ¢â¬â¢t much good with onÃ¢â¬â¢y one handÃ¢â¬ ¦thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they give me a job swampin,Ã¢â¬â¢ Candy explains to George. As a swamper, this is all Candy has left. In 1930s America, a worker who could not work to his full potential, especially during the time of the Depression, would be replaced- CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate fear. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why he wants to Ã¢â¬Å"cook and tend the chickens and hoe the garden someÃ¢â¬ on Lennie and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s land. Candy can lead a safe life, not having to worry about being Ã¢â¬Å"cannedÃ¢â¬ . CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s stumped wrist is a result of an accident on the ranch. Candy is a prime example of being caught in the Migrant WorkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Cycle- moving to one job, before leaving and moving somewhere else. A link can therefore be established with George, and Lennie, who appear to have been traveling around working before the time of Of Mice and Men. This is another case of the cyclic nature of the novella, and a reflection of the American way of life in the 1930s. Another example of CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolic nature is with his Ã¢â¬Å"ancient dogÃ¢â¬ . This [Candy and his dog] is the first Ã¢â¬ËrelationshipÃ¢â¬â¢ in the novella to be broken, with the final bond, George and Lennie, being destroyed at the climax. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËNo,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said softly. Ã¢â¬ËNo, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢ do that. I had Ã¢â¬Ëim too long,'Ã¢â¬ explains Candy in Chapter 3, referring to the idea of killing his dog. This is very similar to George who, despite knowing Lennie will only cause grief to him and those around him, does not want to hurt him, because he too has been with his companion for a long time. Candy explains that, Ã¢â¬Å"I been around him so much I never notice how he stinks,Ã¢â¬ while George earlier says, Ã¢â¬Å"but you get used to goinÃ¢â¬â¢ around with a guy anÃ¢â¬â¢ you canÃ¢â¬â¢t get rid of him.'Ã¢â¬ - Another likeness between the two. George has his own dog, Lennie, who follows George around, maintaining silence in conversations and growing increasingly dependent on a master. During the novella, the recurrence of loneliness, and speculating at a lonesome finale, is ever present, especially in the form of playing cards. The bunkhouse is often the scene of the games, with George the dealer. This is significant, as George frequently exclaims his desire to be alone, Ã¢â¬Å"If I was alone I could live so easy.Ã¢â¬ However, solitude is GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s enemy, and he is fearful at the prospect of living alone. This is projected through his card playing, Ã¢â¬Å"Slim sat downÃ¢â¬ ¦across from GeorgeÃ¢â¬ ¦He studied the solitaire hand that was upside-down to him.Ã¢â¬ Inadvertently, George has dealt a game of solitaire- a single player game, an insinuation at the conclusion of the story, when George ultimately kills his companion. A similar event arises when CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s dog is led by Carlson to be shot. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËAnybody like to play a little euchre?'Ã¢â¬ asks George. The key theme of loneliness is being forced away by George, who refuses to be alone, opting to ask the group to play cards. The constant reminding of impending solitude, and its effects, enable the reader to understand and fully interpret the inevitability of what is to come. Hands play a vital role in the symbolism of Of Mice and Men. There are various references to the hands of men, building up to the climatic noting, Ã¢â¬Å"right hand that had held the gun.Ã¢â¬ Despite the assortment of quotes in relation to hands, each has its own meaning. GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"right handÃ¢â¬ is the killing hand that seals his isolation in the world. CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of a hand, accompanied by persistent referencing to his handicap, Ã¢â¬Å"Candy stood in the doorway scratching his bald wrist,Ã¢â¬ provides a stark reminder of the perils of working in 1930s America, stressing the importance of staying healthy. If an illness or injury affected the work rate of a person, they were often removed from their job- a brusque feature of Capitalism. The contextual relevance expands the fluency of the text for the reader, as the framework for the 1930s American society is commonly paralleled with the novella. With regards to Curley, his Ã¢â¬Å"gloveÃ¢â¬â¢s fulla VaselineÃ¢â¬ , which heÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"keepinÃ¢â¬â¢ soft for his wife.Ã¢â¬ This is one of many sexual references regarding CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, who regularly symbolizes the contextual attraction of whorehouses and prostitutes to the migrant workers. As stated above, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s character is sharply familiarized with prostitutes and the brothels of the 1930s American society. Her flirtatious nature is met with an everlasting disapproval from the workers on the ranch Ã¢â¬â Candy thinks, Ã¢â¬Å"CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s marriedÃ¢â¬ ¦a tart,Ã¢â¬ who, Ã¢â¬Å"got the eye,Ã¢â¬ referring to her engaging character. However, in a letter to Miss Luce, the actress who plays CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife in the play version of the text, Steinbeck explains, Ã¢â¬Å"She is a nice, kind girl and not a floozy.Ã¢â¬ According to Steinbeck, Ã¢â¬Å"she is a little starved. She knows utterly nothing about sex except the mass of misinformation girls tell one another.Ã¢â¬ From this, we can deduce that CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a Ã¢â¬Å"LoolooÃ¢â¬ , and she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t likely to be found in Ã¢â¬Å"Old SusyÃ¢â¬â¢s PlaceÃ¢â¬ , but due to the fact Curley and her have not consummated their marriage, she feels an object to men Ã¢ â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"no man has considered her as anything except a girl to try to make.Ã¢â¬ CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Steinbeck explains, is a nice person, and knows the only way men will notice her is if she is desirable. In Of Mice and Men, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife experiences loneliness, due to neglect from Curley, and she confesses this to Lennie, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËAinÃ¢â¬â¢t I got a right to talk to nobody?'Ã¢â¬ Since no one has tried talking to her, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife has not proved to be anything more than a floozy, which explains the unpleasant behaviour towards her. It is interesting that, when Candy calls her a Ã¢â¬Å"tartÃ¢â¬ , there is a pause, as if to suggest caution. Further along in the conversation, Candy asks, Ã¢â¬Å"You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t tell Curley nothing I said?Ã¢â¬ This implies that Candy is afraid Curley will learn of what he has been saying, as the ranch is the only work heÃ¢â¬â¢ll ever acquire, due to his old age and handicap. The threat of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife to the workers intimidates them to the point of obeying her. SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s pointed description of how CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife flagrantly flirts with the other workers is a repetition of the theme, which he has earlier shown, using the brothels and his showing of the women who work in them as being mere objects. It is almost as if CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife believes that the only way to get by in life is to be like those women in the brothel, and to offer herself as an object. This is the case in Chapter 4, when Crooks coldly exclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"You got no right cominÃ¢â¬â¢ in a coloured manÃ¢â¬â¢s room.Ã¢â¬ CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife uses her position as the bossÃ¢â¬â¢ sonÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, and her contextual superiority over the Negro to threaten him, Ã¢â¬Å"I could get you strung up on a tree so easy it ainÃ¢â¬â¢t even funny.Ã¢â¬ This is threatening to Crooks, as one simple cry of Ã¢â¬ËRapeÃ¢â¬â¢ will result in a lynching. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife also knows that, despite the harmful comments made by the men on the ranch, she holds a distinct advantage over them Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty handy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Curley could beat the worker, and get them fired, due to his position as the bossÃ¢â¬â¢ son. All but two of the workers fear Curley Ã¢â¬â Slim, Ã¢â¬Å"SlimÃ¢â¬ ¦was scowlingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢You lay offa me,'Ã¢â¬ and Carlson Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ll kick your god-damn head off.'Ã¢â¬ CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, therefore, can target the remainder of the men, and flirt with them, to further her position. This goes horribly wrong when she begins to pursue Lennie. Firstly, she re-establishes her coyness through LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËWell if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all you want, I might get a couple rabbits myself.'Ã¢â¬ Then, in the barn house, she looks, Ã¢â¬Å"closely at Lennie to see whether she was impressing him,Ã¢â¬ another instance where she is trying to leave her mark on a worker. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife seals her own fate by exclaiming, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËMine [Hair] is soft and fineÃ¢â¬ ¦feel right here.'Ã¢â¬ This is the last Ã¢â¬ËstageÃ¢â¬â¢ of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s seduction Ã¢â¬â physical contact. She has seen for herself that Lennie likes to pet things, and she foolishly bids Lennie to stroke her hair, knowing full well he will. Lennie strokes too hard, and she Ã¢â¬Å"flops like a fish.Ã¢â¬ Steinbeck purposefully repeats this simile, as this has been used when Lennie crushes CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s hand. This shared simile between the married couple suggests similar characteristics between the two Ã¢â¬â most notably the volatile tempers of the two, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËWhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the matter with me?Ã¢â¬â¢ she cried.Ã¢â¬ As the novella was written in 1930s America, the contextual content would be ever-present. However, coming off of the Depression, the American Dream had been damaged. This is highlighted by CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Ã¢â¬Å"I never got that letter,Ã¢â¬ referring to her failed career as an actress. Ã¢â¬Å"He says he was gonna put me in the movies. Says I was a natural.Ã¢â¬ This is a prime example of the American Dream Ã¢â¬â a nobody becoming a somebody. However, as with the Depression and many lives in America, this Dream was shattered Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"So I married Curley,Ã¢â¬ almost as if she married him to anger her mother, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËI always thought my olÃ¢â¬â¢ lady stole it.'Ã¢â¬ CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife can be classed as the Depression itself Ã¢â¬â the ender of dreams. The Depression ended the American Dream (CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s dream), as well as other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â in Of Mice and Men, CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife also ends Lennie and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, by enticing Lennie, which led to her death, and the end of the Dream. Putting this into reality, these small symbolizations, such as CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife ending Lennie and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, enhances the understanding of the novel, as the main contextual features are evidently clear, assisted by SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s geographical knowledge of the area Ã¢â¬â Steinbeck was raised in the California area, and he worked on a farm Ã¢â¬â the descriptions of the landscape would therefore be accurate, blurring the line between fact and fiction. One of the most effective symbols that Steinbeck employs to the novel is that of animal imagery. Throughout the novel, Lennie is likened to a bear, due to numerous references, Ã¢â¬Å"sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws.Ã¢â¬ The bear-like stance of Lennie suggests his ferocity and power aid him, but he is clumsy, and prone to attack, a true reflection of LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s character. In the opening and final chapters in the novella, the moods are very different, yet similar. The evocative beginnings to each chapter contain repetition of Ã¢â¬Å"the deep green pool of the Salinas River,Ã¢â¬ whilst both being disrupted by man. The most significant part about these openings is the disposition of the disturbance Ã¢â¬â in Chapter 1, Ã¢â¬Å"the rabbits hurried noiselessly for cover, Ã¢â¬Å"whilst in Chapter 6, LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s intrusion is Ã¢â¬Å"as silent as a creeping bear moves,Ã¢â¬ yet another reference to his bear-like stature. However, the most potent form of animal imagery is when it is used in a prefigurative sense. In Chapter 1, Ã¢â¬Å"A stilted heron laboured up into the air and pounded down-river.Ã¢â¬ In Chapter 6, the heron reappears, Ã¢â¬Å"A silent head and beak lanced down and plucked it out by the head, andÃ¢â¬ ¦swallowed the little snake.Ã¢â¬ This is a foreshadowing of the events to follow, where George shoots Lennie in the back of the head. SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s manipulation of his short story permits him to substitute ordinary characters and plots with complex, contextual symbolism. This is used to great effect, and enhances the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the text, which allows a broader knowledge of both the book and the milieu in which it was written.
The Hawthorne Studies is one of the most frequently debated phenomenons in modern work management. Evolved in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s this represents a progression from pure scientific management determined by Taylor to introduction and influence of behavioral sciences in the management of work, workers and work places. Given the long time that the theory has been in vogue and the intense research in management sciences, Hawthorne effect has provided varying interpretations briefly summarized in three main streams of thought. One group of researchers considers that the Hawthorne effect has an impact on productivity due to the effect on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior when they know they are a part of an experiment. (Champoux, 2003) (Nelson & Quick, 2003). Some others deem this to be the changes brought about due to special attention to behavior at the work place. (Jewell, 1998) (Newstrom & Davis, 2002). While yet another interpretation is that it is an effect caused by a novel change in the work environment.Ã (Jex, 2002) (Schultz & Schultz, 2000). These however appear to be limited explanations of the Hawthorne effect. The most significant impact of the experiments is in establishing correlation between human psychology, behavioral sciences and scientific management. (Franke & Kaul, 1978). This integration has resulted in overcoming the overly simplistic principles of scientific management by Taylor (1911). In as much as modern management is concerned the Hawthorne experiments established principles for organizing small group processes which remain relevant to this day. (Franke & Kaul, 1978). Thus the impact of these experiments have to be examined in relation to linkages established between worker productivity and social groups at work, attention to individuals and groups and finally creation of a conducive work environment within the group. These three key parameters can be applied effectively in modern management practices in concurrent spheres which results in improvement in work output once workers feel that management is interested in their welfare and devotes attention to them, increased productivity through a sense of responsibility and discipline which comes from within a group rather than from higher authority, and finally production enhancements resulting from an ideal social environment for the work group. (Mayo, 1933). Welfare of the worker through greater involvement of management is an important derivative of the Hawthorne Experiments which has applicability in modern management. The focus of the Hawthorne studies in worker welfare was determined by factors such as providing adequate breaks for rest, manipulating work hours and creating ideal environment for productivity through control of humidity and temperature. (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939). The implied meaning of such measures was that the management was concerned about and interested in the welfare of the worker. The workers were not as much concerned of the issue of genuineness of interest or productivity related needs of the management in their welfare. In the modern management context however large scale mobility of the work force is related to two spheres, availability of greater opportunities and a perceived sense of selfish rather than proportionately altruistic interest of the management in welfare of the work force. Where workers feel that the management is interested in their welfare only as a measure of productivity, it may not have a singular impact. Creating intrinsic sense of responsibility within a group is one of the prime motivators at work which can result in increased productivity. The Hawthorne experiment proved this dictum by manipulating experiments in various ways and also by creating a sense of permanency in the work groups. The groups seem to select themselves and enhance their commitment and productivity. (Mayo, 1933). In modern management creating sense of responsibility may be considered a function of effective group formation as well. This will result in a sense of purpose creating accountability of individuals to the group. Ironically the John Henry effect, frequently considered as the opposite of the Hawthorne effect supports this premise. Here a control group which is devoid of interventions enhances its efficiency by benchmarking performance based on the experimental group. (Zdep & Irvine; 1970) Thus implying that creation of group cohesion and a sense of responsibility towards productivity may lead to incremental improvements independent of interventions per se. However mere creation of a group may not sustain productivity, this will have to be supported by a conducive community atmosphere within the group. Social environment of the work group surely has an impact on worker productivity. (Mayo, 1933) (Gillespie, 1991). While work place manipulation has become a norm for greater productivity in modern production houses, it is the management of groups which is critical to the same rather than provision of physical improvement of work place beyond a certain limit. Social environment of the work group has impact at two stages in the modern work place. One is the repetitive nature of work performed by groups similar to those in Hawthorne studies. The other more complex form is work frequently carried out in a series, where an error in the chain could compound or negate the entire process. Thus the need may be to build much deeper social networking amongst groups to support not just productivity but also creativity and emotional bondage. Some of the areas which could be envisaged in this sphere are software development where relay chain nature of work would imply need for positive social environment within the work group for completion of the task with minimum errors. A critical examination of the study would reveal that most examinations have focused on the nuances of conduct of experiments rather than the overall impact of these trials. While Elton Mayo had good reason to deliberate on the experiments as this was the first time such scientifically controlled experiments were being undertaken linking behavioral sciences with industrial management, there is a tendency in subsequent works to focus more on the experiments per se rather than findings of the research derived from manipulating the processes of work. Thus critics are restricted to the integrity of the process of experiments thereby missing the essence of the argument of Hawthorne Experiments. This anomaly would be evident in the argument of novelty at the work place. (Jex, 2002) (Schultz & Schultz, 2000). The case of innovation is seen by some writers as incongruent with the conclusions as it was considered difficult to maintain novelty over a period of two years. Yet recycling newness could create conditions in the experiment which to the workers could bring about change thereby resulting in productivity improvements brought about by transformations in small work groups. A second critique of the Hawthorne experiments involves political interpretation of exploitation of workers by capitalists. (Rice, Nd). The argument that the management was interested in workers welfare has been interpreted in a way that it was not interest in the employee per se that had involved the management but the need to increase productivity. This may have relevance when attempting to understand the phenomenon of industrial polity in the modern workplace; but will not be relevant to the issue of application of the conclusions as given above in improving worker productivity. However given the extensive interpretation of the Hawthorne experiments over the years, it can be assumed at this stage that the political bias if any has been removed through the rigor of analysis by a vast body of researchers. One final critique of the Hawthorne studies in relation to modern management would be the underlying lack of importance to the group leader which is implicit in the experiments. The small group was allowed to manage through processes which do not seem to have entailed evolution of a group leader. This appears highly unusual given the natural proclivity of a primate to emerge in a group of people. In a modern setting of say software development, given the serial nature of work and equity in capability, yet importance of nominating a group leader for work group coordination has been highlighted. Nonetheless despite these and other infirmities, Hawthorne studies will continue to remain significant in modern management for the linkage provided for the first time between scientific managing, behavioral sciences and development of potential through principles of human resources.
Monday, 29 July 2019
Teaching - Assignment Example Intuitive-Feeling SELF-EXPRESSIVE Sensing-Feeling INTERPERSONAL Prefers to Learn by: -Seeing tangible results -practicing what he has learned -following directions one step at a time -being active rather than passive -knowing exactly what is expected of her, how well the task must be done and why Studying about ideas and how things are related Planning and carrying out a project of his own making and interest Arguing or debating a point based on logical analysis Problem solving that requires collecting, organizing, and evaluating data Studying about things that directly affect people's lives rather tha impersonal facts and theories Receiving personal attention and encouragement from his teachers Being part of a team-collaborating with other students Activities that help her learn about herself and how she feels about things Being creative and using his imagination Planning and organizing her work in her own creative ways Working on a number of things at one time' Searching for alternative solutions to problems beyond those normally considered Discussing real problems and looking for real solutions Learns Best From: Drill demonstration Practice Hand-on experience Lectures Reading Logical discussions and debates Group experiences and projects Loving attention Personal expression and personal encounters Role playing Creative and artistic activities Open-ended discussions of personal and social values Activities that enlighten and enhance-myths, human achievement, dramas,etc. Likes Doing things that have immediate, practical use Being acknowledged for thoroughness and detail Praise for prompt and complete work Immediate feedback(rewards, priviledges,etc) Time to plan and organize her work Working independently or with other intuitive- Working with ideas and...To write down the steps of baking in order is one thing and to bake it is another thing. The scheme of work is challenging enough for those talented individuals or those in the Intuitive-feeling (self-expressive) and Sensing-Feeling (interpersonal) style of disposition. While for those gifted or those in the Sensing-Thinking (mastery) and Intuitive Thinker (understanding) style of disposition, this is too challenging. The scheme of work for the year 8 is more on practical works, rather than thinking. The talented individuals are being prioritized; the course offers them the expressions of their ideas, kinesthetically, while the gifted individual's abilities are not well exercised. There should be additional measuring criteria involving them in fair percentage and ratings. c) Having 12 visual, 9 kinesthetic, 3 auditory students, is a difficult thing to assess inside the classroom, this is where you need to give special attention to the following students, not only for the dominant number but those who are left aside. The visuals deal with the spatial intelligence and are in favor of the lesson, since they can see most of the time the process of how to bake.
Sunday, 28 July 2019
Drucker - New Organizations - Article Example ill be a chief guiding force for the functioning and growth of the organization and information built up does not mean that organization needs a large data-processing capability. The new ways of information system generated through the application of computers will reduce the man power requirement. The raw data available through various means will be used to generate the information but the process itself will require knowledge. Knowledge is always a specialized discipline and that is why organization will need more and more specialists to convert available information into knowledge. Thus, knowledge-based organizations will, overtime, replace all command-and-control kind of business establishments. To convey his points about information based organization, Drucker has put forward the example of British Civil Administration, which was run in India during the period of eighteenth century through World War II without any need of middle management cadre. The whole of the India was governed by merely 1000 officers heading a district administration. It was totally a flat organization structure. The officer used to report directly to the provincial political secretary. Their being total nine provinces each political secretary had at least 100 administrative officers under him to manage the show. The officer used to send a detailed report to the secretary for all the assigned tasks, the achievements and discrepancies and the detailing about the opportunities and emerging threats in the ensuing period. Political secretary would also response with full comments for necessary guidance. Peter points out about the effectiveness of such system as an organization. What is noteworthy is that information based organizations look for simple and clear objectives. At times, there are a few common objectives for all that leads to actions and those objectives are carried out by specialists. Thus, information-based business is structured around goals and clearly defines expectations
Saturday, 27 July 2019
2 questions - Assignment Example For Example, if we multiply two numbers a^5 and a^3, then we add powers of both number as bases are same and the product will be Quotient Rule: When dividing with exponential notation with the same bases (non-zero), we subtract the exponent of the denominator from the exponent of the numerator. For Example, dividing a^5 by a^3, we subtract 3 from 5, as bases are same and the division will be When rewriting an exponential expression with a negative exponent and a positive base to an expression containing only a positive exponent, does the sign of the base change? Demonstrate with an example. No, when rewriting an exponential expression with a negative exponent and a positive base to an expression containing only a positive exponent, the sign of the base does not change. In case of a negative exponent, x to the power of a negative number is one divided by x to the power of that positive number. For example, a^(-2) will be equal to
Friday, 26 July 2019
Critically assess the main implications of globalisation for HRM, and analyse the future challenges for people management within - Essay Example The main implications of globalization for HRM are in terms of people management and in taking care of the day to day affairs of the organization, which essentially mentions where shortcomings and apprehensions arise and how best to do away them in a convenient way (Richter, 2006). This paper highlights how globalization has affected HRM and how several employee levels within an organization work to their best possible levels to bring that vital change which is much needed. Also significance is laid on different premises like cultural manifestations, people to people linkages, role of top management and specialists, and the usage of resources for the overall betterment of the organizations and the productivity basis of the employees in the long run. It is significant to first define how globalization has affected HRM. With the advent of time and age, globalization has influenced each and every segment of life and professional domains are no exception to this rule. Similarly, HRM gets its basis from the professional regimes where emphasis is on getting the job done for the sake of people management, which includes recruiting, firing and so on. ... The main implications of globalization for HRM depend a great deal on how globalization is viewed in essence and how it is able to resolve the ambiguities which stand in the way of HRM dependence. There is a dire need to comprehend the fact that HRM will take care of all such nuances if handled in an amicable fashion. Also the manner in which HRM will manifest its truest role is something that goes to show how things are deemed as important under the aegis of the workplace discussions. Globalization has indeed come out as an eye-opener for many organizations around the world and it is for this reason that there are immensely significant pointers that shall be discussed and delved deep upon in this paper. When HRM is seen from a global perspective, different employees are hired who belong to distinctive cultures from around the world. How they are managed is an interesting phenomenon which needs to be seen from the organizational and industrial standpoints. These employees do find it hard to adjust within various workplace locations yet are always willing to bring a change within their personalities and domains to suit the needs and requirements of the organizations they work for. The earnestness on their part to bring about a change is always present. The need is to comprehend how to set things right within the organizational settings so that HRM presents a true picture. Globally speaking, HRM is always given preference within an organization because it creates an instructional basis for the employees and tells them the difference between the right and the wrong. It is a fact that those organizations which have many employees on board usually look up to their HRM domains in order to bring sanity within recruitment, day to day people management and
Thursday, 25 July 2019
Lloyds Banking Group Integration - Essay Example Organisational Structures Special Issues for Banks Martin and Fellenz (2010, p.592) define organisation structure as Ã¢â¬Å"the formal arrangement of task, communication and authority relationships that influence and control how people co-ordinate and conduct their workÃ¢â¬ . It is assumed that organisations can choose their structures and change them through what Brunsson and Olsen (1993, p.211) refer to as Ã¢â¬Å"administrative reformsÃ¢â¬ , which they define as Ã¢â¬Å"expert attempts at changing organisational formsÃ¢â¬ (ibid). They claim the belief that formal organisations can be changed originates in Ã¢â¬Å"a rational, instrumental traditionÃ¢â¬ which assumes a hierarchical approach to leadership and power with an unequal distribution of work and working conditions, among other things (ibid, p.212). They question how much choice, in reality, organisational leaders have when they decide to change the organisational structure. For Lloyds Group, this is a particularly pe rtinent issue as consideration is being given to breaking up the larger banks to avoid the Ã¢â¬Å"too big to failÃ¢â¬ belief following the global economic crisis of 2007-2008 (Treanor, 2011). The USA had, until 1999, regulations in place imposed by the Glass-Steagall Act 1934, which required different banking functions to be kept separate. Following the crisis, several commentators suggested the UK might consider such an approach (Goddard et al, 2009, p.374), although some believe it is unlikely to be implemented (Hindle, 2009, p.422). For Lloyds, such a break-up would be change imposed by the environment rather than a choice for senior management, something that Brunsson and Olsen see as a key issue for those who look to change organisational structures. They believe any organisational change is affected to a greater or lesser extent by the context within which that change takes place and organisational structure can simply be the result of a series of unconnected events that we re not originated by the organisation (1993, p.219). As the banking industry is currently subject to heavy scrutiny by both government and the public, any changes Lloyds Group decide to make will be affected by that scrutiny and the prevailing culture of risk avoidance. In addition to the possibility of an imposed break-up, Lloyds must also consider the current regulatory requirements that insist on divisions, whether real or virtual, between different functions within the Group (Ã¢â¬Å"Chinese wallsÃ¢â¬ ) to avoid issues such as insider trading and dealing with privileged information, something the USA have recently reconsidered within the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Hay and Goebel 2010). This analysis must therefore be considered in the light of the specific requirements of the banking industry currently in place and the likelihood that further changes will be required in the immediate short term. Possible Organisational Structures The structure of an organisation should be determined by the strategy the organisation pursues and the business undertaken to deliver products and services to customers (Mullins 2010). Lloyds Group needs to determine what business it is in and how it intends doing that business, before it can decide how to integrate the different parts of the Group. On the assumption that the purpose of the integration
Wednesday, 24 July 2019
Gay Marriage in the United States - Research Paper Example In addition, the paper shall provide the recent opinion polls on the subject and scrutinize the findings. Gay marriage in the United has hit debates with a lot of controversies on the subject. The United States comprises of approximately 50 states. Six states in the United States allow marriage between same sexes. The states include; Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, Lowa, and New Hampshire. Thirty nine states have banned gay marriage. Five states; Hawaii, Delaware, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Illinois have approved the civil unions of gay marriage. In addition, some states that legalized gay marriage enacted the Civil Union laws (Graff, 1999, p.175). Vermont received the first civil Union in the year 2000. The supreme court of the state passed a ruling requiring the state to recognize couples of the same sex. The matter would be left to the legislature to legalize forms of relationship including gay marriage. The legislature, receiving force from then Governor, select ed the civil unions against marriage as a measure that could be compromising. On July 1, 2000, the act took effect. The Civil UnionsÃ¢â¬â¢ bill became effective in September 2009. Connecticut legislature legalized civil unions in the year 2005 devoid of the court order. The effect of the law took place in October 2008, designated by the Connecticut governor. The Supreme Court of Connecticut favored the ruling in the year 2008. In the year 2010, on 12th November, all the civil unions automatically became marriages. The New Jersey state legalized the civil unions through Its Supreme Court ruling. The ruling required both same-sex and opposite-sex couples to receive similar benefits. The Act of the Civil Union took effect on 19th February the year 2007. Although, the gay rights groups stated their dissatisfaction in the law, they undertook measures to enhance same-sex marriage. Illinois house passed a bill of the Civil Union on 30th November the year 2010. On 1st December, 2010, the senate of Illinois approved the bill. Pat Quinn, the governor signed the law on 31st January, 2011. The law became effective on 1st June 2011. The house of New Hampshire passed the Civil Union bill on 4th April 2007. The bill gave equal rights to both the heterosexual and homosexual couples. The senate of the New Hampshire approved the bill of the Civil Union on 26th April 2006. Governor Lynch signed the law on 31st May 2007. The state embraced same-sex unions with no court order. The law of the Civil Union took effect on 1st January 2008. The state of Hawaii in the United States has presented reciprocal beneficiary registration for adults prohibited from marrying by the state law. This has been effective since the year 1997. Both different-sex and same-sex couples have access to benefits and a limited number of rights. These rights include workers compensation, inheritance rights, health insurance, pension, and the right to litigate for wrongful death. On 23rd February 2011, the Go vernor, Neil, signed a bill sanctioning Civil Unions. The law became effective on 1st January 2012. On April 14, 2011, Delaware House passed the legislation legalizing Civil Unions for gay marriage. The governor designated the bill and it took effect on 1st January, 2012. Rhode Island passed the Civil Unions bill on 1st July 2011. Since the year 1997, the subject of gay marriage in the United States strike debates where the state legislators have formulated decisions. The debates over
FIDM Museum & Galleries Launched its 23rd Annual Art of Motion Picture Costume Design - Assignment Example The Managing Director of FIDM Museum & Galleries, Collins Parker has said that: Ã¢â¬Å"Artists who want to showcase their work should never miss this opportunity since they will get the chance to interact with their targeted customers to attract them to their products.Ã¢â¬ He further states that: Ã¢â¬Å"Being the largest promoter in the arts and fashion industries, FIDM Museum & Galleries is always on the prowl head hunting for talent.Ã¢â¬ Essentially, the main idea behind the exhibition is to promote the growth and development of the arts industry. The exhibition seeks to create a mutually beneficial relationship among all the exhibitors so that they can continue to participate in similar events in the future. The artists will come face to face with their consumers and they can exchange valuable information that can help them develop their talent and skills. The aim is also to inspire the artists to be creative in their work. It is anticipated that this exhibition will go a long way in stimulating growth in the arts
Tuesday, 23 July 2019
Homeland Security-The Secure Communities Program - Research Paper Example The opposition of particular States to aspects of the DHS initiatives Ã¢â¬â specifically as they relate to immigration and immigrants Ã¢â¬â will be examined, commented on, and proposals will be made to address this particular facet of national security, as it affects both local communities and individuals. Additionally, mechanisms to counter the apathy among individuals and local organizations, in implementing policy and advisories, are proposed, especially in light of the new focus on Ã¢â¬Å"resilienceÃ¢â¬ in thinking about national security measures. An overarching definition of Homeland Security must include more than just the traditional role of government and civic society to protect and serve citizens. Currently, it is the combination of responses to evolving threats and hazards from all levels of American society and government. In the concept of Homeland Security, civil defense, emergency response, law enforcement, customs, border control, and immigration are included. By creating the concept of homeland security, it is possible to emphasize the need for combining the actions of agencies, social organizations and government in coordinated response to threats. Those seeking to harm the USA can thus find fewer opportunities to do so, given the preparedness on all levels of society (Rose, 2004, p. 307). Cooperation and coordination of numerous facets of American society are required to ensure the success of the actions of the DHS. The Homeland Security initiative is, according to the Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report Executive Summary, Ã¢â¬Å"widely distributed and diverseÃ¢â¬ and is a Ã¢â¬Å"national enterpriseÃ¢â¬ . Most importantly, it is seen as Ã¢â¬Å"unmistakableÃ¢â¬ , arguing that this is a Program involving multiple parties and stakeholders, and that broad-based community involvement is required. It gives responsibility to the expected agencies: Federal, State, local, tribal, territorial, non-governmental, and private sector organizations; but
Monday, 22 July 2019
History of English Literature Essay 1.What role does the mead-hall play in Anglo-Saxon warrior culture? What is the proper relationship between a lord and his warriors? What examples can you find throughout Beowulf? 2.What is the role of women in the heroic culture of Beowulf? 3.Compare/contrast what constitutes a hero or the notion of heroism in the Old English and Middle English periods. Draw your examples from two texts: either Beowulf OR The Dream of the Rood 4.Drawing your examples from Beowulf and one Middle English work, compare/contrast the roles assigned to women in literature of the Old and Middle English periods. 5.Analyze the different ways in which English Renaissance poets contributed to or responded to the Petrarchan tradition of love poetry. 6.In what ways does the idea of the court and the life of the courtier affect Renaissance English literature? Identify poems or works in which court life is represented or commented upon and explain how those texts reflect Renaissance attitudes toward court life. 7.The concept of meditation in WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s Tintern Abbey 8.The credibility of PipÃ¢â¬â¢s character in DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Expectations 9.Discuss the Social critique in DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Expectations 10.Discus the concept of being a gentleman in DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Expectations 11.Ddiscuss the Reality and symbolism in HopkinsÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry 12.Discuss the concept of purity in HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s Tess of the dÃ¢â¬â¢Urbervilles 13.Discuss Christianity and paganism pl in HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s Tess of the dÃ¢â¬â¢Urbervilles 14.Discuss the symbolism of darkness and light in ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness 15.Discuss the elements of postmodernism in British Contemporary Poems (take example from british contemporary writer) 16.Discuss the element of Romanticism in William WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s Poems 17.Discuss The influence of Japanese Poetry in Modern Poetry by Ezra Pound 18.Discuss the portrayal of ideal women in Victorian Novel written by Women writers. 19.How did French Poetry influence the development of modern English Poetry? 20.Discuss various aspect of modernism in James JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢ UlllysesÃ¢â¬ 21.Compare different attitude to war presented by the Poets William Butler Yeats, Sigfried Sassoon, and Wilfrid Owen in their poems. 22.How did FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on human psyce influence the work of moden writer? Provide examples! 23.How did Asian Poetry influence the works of early modernist poets Eezra Pound and Richard Aldington?
Sunday, 21 July 2019
A microscope: An overview 1. Introduction A microscope is an instrument used to investigate tiny objects which cannot be seen by naked eyes. There exist three types of microscopes which are optical microscopes, electron microscopes, and scanning probe microscopes. (1) Six types of microscopes talked in this report are reflected and transmitted light microscope, scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM), focused ion beam (FIB), and atomic force microscope (AFM). 1.1 Reflected light microscopes Reflected light microscope is a type of microscope using visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small samples. It is used to examine opaque specimens which will not transmit light and other materials such as ceramics.The reflected light travels through the objective lens, which in this arrangement acts as both a condenser and an objective, and strikes the specimen.It is then reflected off the specimen back up through the objective lens, the head, the eyepieces, and finally to the eye.(2) 1.2 Transmitted light microscope Transmitted light microscope is a type of microscope where the light transmits from a source on the opposite side of the specimen from the objective. Usually the light is passed through a condenser to focus it on the specimen to get very high illumination. (3)After the light passes through the specimen, the image of the specimen goes through the objective lens and to the oculars where the enlarged image is viewed. 1.3 Scanning electron microscope The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one kind of electron microscope. The SEM utilizes a very fine probing beam of electrons scanning over the specimen to emit a variety of radiations. The signal which is proportional to the amount of radiation leaves an individual point of the sample at any time. The signal obtained from one point will display the information of that point. In practice, the points follow one another with very high speed so that the image of each point becomes an image of a line, and the line move down the screen so rapidly that the naked eye sees a complete image on the computer. SEMs are patterned after reflecting light microscopes and will yield similar information 1.4 Transmission electron microscope A transmission electron microscope (TEM) works much like a slide projector. A projector shines a beam of light through the slide, as the light passes through it is affected by the structures and objects on the slide. These effects result in only certain parts of the light beam being transmitted through certain parts of the slide. This transmitted beam is then projected onto the viewing screen, forming an enlarged image of the slide. TEMs work the same way except that they shine a beam of electrons through the specimen. Whatever part is transmitted is projected onto a screen for the user to see. TEMs are patterned after transmission light microscopes and will yield similar information. 1.5 Focused ion beam A focused ion beam system (FIB) is a relatively new tool that has a high degree of analogy with a focused electron beam system such as a scanning electron microscope or a transmission electron microscope. In SEM and TEM the electron beam is directed towards the sample generating signals that are used to create high magnification images of the sample. The major difference with a focused ion beam system is the use of a different particle to create the primary beam that interacts with the sample. A highly focused ion beam is used instead of electrons in FIB. As the beam scans the surface of the sample, a highly magnified image is created, which allows the system operator to view the samples microscopic features clearly. 1.6 Atomic force microscope The AFM is one of the foremost tools for imaging, measuring and manipulating matter at the nanoscale. The information is gathered by feeling the surface with a mechanical probe. To achieve atomic scale resolution, a sharp stylus (radius ~1-2 nm) attached to a cantilever is used in the AFM to scan an object point by point and contouring it while a constant small force is applied to the stylus. Piezoelectric elements that facilitate tiny but accurate and precise movements enable the very precise scanning. (4) 2. Study of comparison among six kinds of microscopes 2.1 Optical microscopes Optical microscopes, which use visible wavelengths of light, are the simplest and most used. Both transmitted light microscopy and reflected light microscopy need low energy and the microscope itself is much cheaper and smaller than electron microscopes. Compared to electron microscopes, the optical microscopes have another advantage that the image obtained from them is in color. Comparing to reflected light microscope, the transmitted light microscope only works on light transparent specimens but not metal, ceramics and some polymers such as rubber. However sample preparation of transmitted light microscope is relatively complicated. As it requires sample thin enough for the light to go through. This can be done by using a microtome to slice at lower temperature; as well the distortion of the section due to the sample preparation is a problem for observing. (5) 2.2 SEM The SEM has allowed researchers to examine a much bigger variety of specimens no matter it is bulk or thin layer. The scanning electron microscope has many advantages over optical microscopes.The SEM has a large depth of field, which allows more of a specimen to be in focus at one time.The SEM has much higher resolution (~1-5nm). (5)Because the SEM uses electromagnets rather than lenses, much more control in the degree of magnification can be done.All of these advantages, as well as the actual strikingly clear images, make the scanning electron microscope one of the most useful instruments in research today. However, materials that can be examined in the SEM must be vacuum compatible, clean and electrically conducting such as metal. But for non-conducting materials such as ceramic and polymers, gold or carbon coating on the surface of the sample is essential. 2.3 TEM TEM is a technology using a high energy (80-200kV) beam of electrons to transmit through an ultra thin specimen (50-200nm). High resolution (~0.2nm) is the most significant advantage of TEM. (5) However, there are a number of drawbacks to the TEM technique. Many materials require extensive sample preparation to produce a sample thin enough to be electron transparent, which makes TEM analysis a relatively time consuming process. The structure of the sample may be changed during the preparation process. Also the field of view is relatively small, which leads to the region analyzed may not be characteristic of the whole sample. There is potential that the sample may be damaged by the electron beam, particularly in the case of biological materials. 2.4 FIB FIB is usually used to examine metal surfaces. If the sample is non-conductive, a low energy electron flood gun can be used to provide charge neutralization. FIB is inherently destructive to the specimen because when the high-energy gallium ions strike the sample, they will sputter atoms from the surface. Ga atoms will also be implanted into the top few nanometers of the surface making the surface amorphous. (6) These limitations produce noticeable effects when using techniques such as high-resolution lattice imaging TEM or electron energy loss spectroscopy. 2.5 AFM The AFM is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of 1 nm. (4) AFM provides a true three-dimensional surface profile. Additionally, samples viewed by AFM do not require any special treatments such as coating. Most AFM modes can work perfectly in air or even a liquid environment without a need of vacuum. This makes it possible to study not only metal, ceramic, polymer but also biological macromolecules and even living organisms. In principle, AFM can provide higher resolution than SEM. It has been shown to give true atomic resolution in ultra-high vacuum and in liquid environments. High resolution AFM is comparable in resolution to TEM. A disadvantage of AFM compared with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is the image size. The AFM can only image a maximum height on the order of 10-20 micrometers and a maximum scanning area of around 150 by 150 micrometers. (4) Another inconvenience is that the AFM could not scan images as fast as an SEM, requiring several minutes for a typical scan, while a SEM is capable of scanning at near real-time after the chamber is evacuated. The relatively slow rate of scanning during AFM imaging often leads to thermal drift in the image making the AFM microscope less suited for measuring accurate distances between topographical features on the image. (4) 2.6 Competition 3. Example of applications 3.1 Reflected light microscope Normally, reflected light microscope is used to image metal, ceramic and rubber. Thats the reason why it is also called metallurgical microscope. Nowadays it becomes a fast growing interest; especially in regard to its increasing usefulness in the fluorescence microscopy as well as the rapidly growing semiconductor industry had also led to an increase in the use of reflected light microscopes. (7) 3.2 Transmitted light microscope Polymers can commonly be looked at under the transmitted light microscope, because most of them are transparent or translucent. It can also analyze cell slices obtained from organism. Most of the lab can afford a transmitted light microscope since it is relatively cheap. 3.3 SEM About any scientific field can use an SEM as a research tool. It can be used to look at the crystalline structures of chemical compounds and how their bonds form. A scanning electron microscope is especially useful for looking at the surfaces of materials at an atomic level. 3.4 TEM TEM can do diffraction analysis of small areas by selected area diffraction. High resolution x-ray microanalysis and analysis of crystal defects such as dislocations, stacking faults using diffraction contrast can also be done by using TEM. Another important application is it can image lattice of crystalline materials. (8) 3.5 FIB FIB can be used as Ion beam imaging. The FIB also offers the ability to perform nanopatterning and micromachining respectively, and by instructing the machine to add or remove pertinent features, operator can design and prototype a new micro or nanostructure, modify integrated circuits and cross section specific features to allow failure analysis even in the 3D (TEM sample preparation). FIB is also used for Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). (7) The ejected secondary ions are collected and analyzed after the surface of the specimen has been sputtered with a primary focused ion beam. 3.6 AFM The atomic force microscope (AFM) is one of the most powerful tools for determining the surface topography of native biomolecules at subnanometer resolution. AFM allows biomolecules to be imaged not only under physiological conditions, but also while biological processes are at work. The AFM can also provide insight into the binding properties of biological systems. 4. Summary Characteristics of six different types of microscopes are compared in this article, including sample preparation and technique limitations. Each one has its advantage and disadvantage, so it is necessary to consider comprehensively before choosing, for example, the type of the material, needed information, vacuum compatible, conductivity and sample preparation, etc. References Microscopy and Analysis. [Online] http://www.microscopy-analysis.com/. Reflected Light Microscopes. [Online] http://reflectedlightmicroscopes.com/. Wikipidia. Optical microscope. [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/optical Microscope. W. Richard Bowen, Nidal Hilal. Atomic force microscopy in process engineering : introduction to AFM for improved processes and products. 2009. Geoff West, John Bates, David Ross, D Grandy, J Perkins. MPP242 Microscopy Handouts. Loughborough: The department of materials, 2009. Peter J. Goodhew, Richard Beanland, John Humphreys. Electron microscopy and analysis. s.l.: Taylor Francis Ltd, 2000. The Royal Microscope socieity. [Online] http://www.rms.org.uk/. Brent Fultz, James Howe. Transmission electron microscopy and diffractometry of materials . 2008.
Saturday, 20 July 2019
Spice Mobiles: Sales and Distribution Strategy Indian wireless sector has been an epitome of growth and success story all along as the cellular subscriber base increased from 1.9 million as on March 31, 2000 to 584 million as on March 31, 2010. As the sector has matured, the baton of growth has been passed-on to novel concepts such as Telecom Infrastructure Companies (commonly known as the tower companies), Value Added Service providers (popular application being Caller Ring Back Tone-CRBT) and more recently the home-grown Mobile Handset (HG) players. The Indian Mobile Handset Market is dominated by established international brands such as Nokia, Samsung, Motorola, LG etc. Nokia has been a clear market leader followed by Samsung, a distant second. There has been a continuous jostle for the third position with players like Motorola, Sony Ericsson, LG vying for the spot. Apart from the braded cell-phones, the market is also flushed with cheap, unbranded imported mobile phones that get routed through grey markets to reach domestic consumers (most of these unbranded mobile phones, hitherto, were without any International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers). When mobile phones were introduced in India in the mid-90s, US based Motorola, Swedens Ericsson and Finlands Nokia dominated the handset market in India. Over the years, the old order has changed. Asian players like Samsung and LG, European brands Philips and Siemens now compete with Motorola and Sony-Ericsson. Now with the emergence of local players like Micromaxx, karbonn and Spice etc., the competition has got all the more intense and the fight for consumers pocket has increased. Nokia, the undisputed leader is now challenged by local players like Micromaxx which has replaced Samsung to become the third biggest mobile selling vendor in the country. If we look a bit deeper, its not only the price or technology, but the reach of these new players in terms of distribution that has given them such a big chunk of the market and that to so soon! HOME-GROWN MOBILE HANDSET PLAYERS Given the backdrop of the growth in the domestic wireless subscriber base coupled with no dominant mobile handset player in India apart from the international brand, Nokia, provided business opportunity for Indian firms to take a plunge into the market; thus, the creation of HG players including Spice Mobiles, Micromax, Karbonn, Lava, Videocon etc. The business model followed by most HG players is relatively simple. These players have research and innovation teams that provide India-centric design specifications to contract manufacturers in neighbouring countries of China, Taiwan etc. These phones are shipped to India which are then routed through the domestic distribution channel for sale in the domestic market. Time-to-market from design-to-production-to-end market is critical in this sector as such players have set-up three-layered distribution system that includes regional distributors to support micro-distributors that in turn service the retail outlets. The initial part of the success of HG players was largely attributable to the price-elasticity of demand prevalent in the Indian market. These players provided phones loaded with various features at an affordable price. Other key aspect of the strategy followed by these players was to initially tap the rural markets where consumers are relatively less brand conscious and more price conscious. We believe it was not just the price differential that made these players tick; the home-grown players provided innovative offerings to rural markets (such as multi SIM handsets, mobile phones with 30-day battery back-up) that provided value-for-money rather than mere price-differential a key success mantra to tap the fortune at the bottom-of-the-pyramid. (Hitherto, the key market segment for these players) The inflection point for the growth of HG players in the recent times also came from the directive from the Government of India to bar handsets without IMEI numbers to be used in India. These handsets were a direct competition to the HG players and a ban on them provided huge growth opportunities for these players. Encashing on this opportunity, the HG players have grown from strength-to-strength and are slowly but surely cementing their place in the Indian Mobile Handset market. Attuned to its primary market segment i.e. Tier-I and Tier-II cities, the marketing by HG players were hitherto more of the push-strategy whereby greater pass-through margins were given to Distributors and Retailers. However, off-late they have also initiated the use of pull-strategy by venturing into brand building initiatives such as roping-in of brand ambassadors and sponsoring of sports tournaments. We see these initiatives as a prelude before venturing into more lucrative urban markets. However, going f orward the HG players shall have to contend with various challenges such as to constantly invest on innovation and brand building; to build and strengthen their distribution network after-sales services; to move-up the value chain both in term of technology (providing 3-G Technology, QWERTY format phones) and markets (from Tier-II/ Tier-III segments to Urban markets) and to counter direct competition from Chinese players who are looking to set-up shops in India. Here in this study, we will discuss the key distribution strategies and challenges of one such home grown player Spice Mobile. A DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTION MODEL The distribution of mobile phones varies considerably from that of other consumer electronics and appliances such as LCD TVs or Air conditioners. This is because the pace of sales of mobile phones is a lot faster than the other consumer electronic goods. Also, the physical size of the products also is a factor. The mobile phone, being a quite fast moving product, hence is not handled by the distributors handling TVs and audio products or washing machines and refrigerators. Hence the supply chain management and logistics management of the two products distribution becomes very different. The great Indian mobile revolution is all set to move to the rural part of the country, with handset manufacturers gearing up to come out with market-specific products to acquire maximum share. The next big opportunity for telcos will be in the hinterland where two-thirds of the countrys 1.17 bn population lives.There are many factors driving handset manufacturers and operators to the rural market. Th ough India is emerging as one of the biggest telecom markets, metros and tier-2 cities are already reaching saturation point. Hence, companies have no option but to explore newer markets to sustain the growth. As of now, India is adding around 9 mn subscribers a month, and in June 20010 the country added 11 mn subscribers. E.g. if we look into Samsung Indias distribution chain, we find that every Samsung product other than the mobile phone (and IT products, which again has a different distribution chain) are distributed by the same wholesaler. For mobile phones, there is a totally different Distribution. This is a result of the above two major factors (pace of sales and physical size of product). Example: Distribution of mobile phones by Samsung The Distribution of Samsung mobile phones is divided by zones primarily. This strategy is more or less similar for all major mobile phone manufacturing companies. The northern region, comprising Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Uttarakhand and Rajasthan, have four distribution partners for Samsung Mobile. Now for better reach and response to consumer demands and to cater to them efficiently Samsung are looking to add five more distribution partners to the Northern Region. Samsung has recently strengthened its distribution network in the country by appointing SSK and Link as its distributors for mobile sales in the Western and Eastern part of the country, respectively. The company already has Telemart and United Telelinks as its distributor in the Northern and Southern parts of the country. There are usually two distributors between the company (Samsung Mobile) and the retailer. E.g. there is a chief distributor for the products for the western zone. Under that distributor, there are other wholesalers for the mobile handsets which are usually for particular cities in case of cities with considerable size and market. E.g. Ahmedabad has two distributors which supply to the retail firms in the city. While some of the smaller cities/towns have a distributor in common. Also, some of the premium retail firms might buy directly from the chief distributor (only if the quantities justify it). Example strategy: Franchisee retailers Also, Franchising Strategy for some companies has also helped in driving sales and profitability. E.g. Nokia Priority franchisee showrooms. Nokia has setup priority dealers to boost growth in organized trade. The following have been the benefits for Nokia as a result of the success in franchisee retailing: Positive brand experience across segments in a controlled environment Channel drives retention for Nokia Win the war before the battle Positive retail experience drives higher avg. selling prices Harnessing entrepreneurship spirit of franchisees Retail space investment by franchisee Nokia drives location selection, branding merchandizing support, media support Tackles fakes effectively The Value contribution to Nokia by Nokia Priority dealers in 2007 was around 10% of the total revenue generated by Nokia in India. It is expected to be around 20% by 2010. A TYPICAL DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL FOR MOBILE HANDSET VENDORS Consumer Manufacturer Mobile Devices National Distributor RDS Retailer/ Key Account When we contacted retail outlets like Hotspot, The mobile store, which comes right before the end user in the distribution system, they gave us similar details regarding the channel members which are above them for various hand set providers. This information was further substantiated by visiting the redistribution stockists of companies like nokia, samsung, LG, spice etc. However, although the above structure is pretty common in industry, the Indian players like Spice, Micromax etc have gone away with the concept of national distributor. We will discuss the implications of this decision by taking Spice Mobile as our information source. INDUSTRY LEADER: NOKIA DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL Nokia India(ND) HCL India(ND) Bright point India(ND) GSM Handsets South and west India GSM Handsets North and East India Margin 3.5% CDMA Handsets National Distributor Margin 3.5% Redistribution Stockist Pan India 150 Nos Margin 2.2% South and West India 90-100 Nos(Urban+rural) Margin 2.2% Redistribution Stockist Redistribution Stockist North and East India 90-100 Nos(Urban+rural) Margin 2.2% Micro Distributor(Rural) 500 Nos Margin 3% Retail Outlets (includes Telecom Outlets, Electronics Stores, Nokia Priority Dealers, Key Accounts, Modern Trade, Operator Stores) 100,000 nos. (Nokia has a numeric reach of 99% and a weighted reach of 99% Margin 3-5% TRANSPORT OF GOODS: STRUCTURE NOKIA This is the flow of goods from the production/assembly units in china and Malaysia to the end user. For Nokia, central warehouses are located in Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi, which then transfer handsets to regional warehouses, typically 1 in each state. From these regional warehouses, handsets are then transferred to the redistribution stockist wherein the actual sales to retailers happen mostly on ready stock basis. SALES TEAM STRUCTURE: NOKIA For Nokia, the last level in its sales force is Area sales manager. Earlier, they used to have sales officers and sales managers under nokias direct control and pay scale but now these two profiles have been shifted or in some cases omitted to/by distributor. Sales executives, ISDs all are on the pay scale of distributors. SPICE MOBILE: DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL STRUCTURE After sales Support Centralized Repair Center Modern Trade State/Regional Distributors Located in Delhi Company operated request center Directly by Spice Mobile Dedicated sales team at regional level Margin 6-7% Pan India 56 Nos (state wise) Margin 2.2% Micro Distributor (RDS) 500 Nos (Tier2, Tier3 cities) Margin 6% Authorized regional repair center (ARC) Central distribution and collection center for parts and faulty handsets 32 (in each state) Authorized service center (ASC) Multi brand service centres Total 76 in number across India Retail Outlets (includes Telecom Outlets, Electronics Stores, Hotspot Dealers, Key Accounts, Modern Trade, Operator Stores) 50,000 nos. Margin 3% atleast rest depends on consumers bargaining As opposed to other competitors, the differentiating factor about spice distribution chain is the removal of one layer in the distribution chain, namely the national distributor level. They distribute their products directly to regional distributors, who in turn distributes to the micro distributors and then, to retailers. Micro distributors provide the extensive reach to them as they have strong presence in the rural areas/villages where they operate. The key advantage of operating such a structure according to our discussion with Spice sales team is the margins that the national distributor makes, which can be passed down the chain to the regional distributors and retailers. This results in higher profitability for channel partners ie. regional distributors, micro distributors, retailers, which in turn results in them being more aggressive in promoting the Companys products to its customers. The entire warehousing and distribution management has been outsourced with effect from 31st October, 2005 for the period of 5 year to AFL Logistics, a division of AFL Pvt. Ltd. (AFL), one of the logistics management companies in India, which is responsible inter alia for shipment of goods to regional distributors through its controlling warehouse based in Delhi. KEY PARTICIPANTS IN DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL: ROLES AND RESOURCES Now lets discuss in details the various function of channel members Company: Spice mobile manufactures the goods in Himachal plant or assembles them once procured from China and send the same to the distributors. The logistic partner (AFL) assist the company in the same. The company does the negotiations and promotion activities on its own. The credit and payment policies are also handled and negotiated between the company and distributors. Also company directs certain promotions to retailers. Regional Distributors: Ownership is transferred once invoice is generated by spice to state/regional distributors. They transfer the products from company to distributors. They basically take order form the distributors and provide them with the products. They bear risk and negotiations are also handled by them. These parties absolve company from appointing more personnel and funds for the activity of mere transportation and inventory holding from warehouse to the distributor. Micro Distributors: They are the primary buyer of company. The sharing of information, risking and payment are carried out between regional distributors and distributors and then between regional and company. Distributors provide market coverage to the company also create orders. In Spice mobile, promotion activity is carried out by distributors. Retailers: They usually undertake all the functions and transfer the physical possession and ownership to customers. They usually only perform promotion along with company, for rest of the function they interact with distributors. They act as the final source of information and payment to the company. Members Regional distributors/Stockist Stockist / Micro Distributor Retailer Role Involved in the business of re-distribution to authorized micro distributors Responsible for warehousing, transport of goods to next tier and payment collection May be non-exclusive, but have separate set-up for each business Involved in the business of re-distribution to wholesalers and retailers May be exclusive to the business Includes all classes of retail outlets Involved in counter sales and not in the business of redistribution Not required to be exclusive to the business Resources High financial strength with ability to hold stocks Infrastructure Office, IT capability, godown space High financial strength with ability to hold stocks and provide credit in the market Infrastructure IT Limited spend on localized sales promotion Appropriate store location and size SALES TEAM STRUCTURE: SPICE ISSUES IDENTIFIED IN SPICE SALES AND DISTRIBUTION Multiple Micro distributors in a given territory Having multiple distributors in a territory can spell problems for the company because when two or more distributors supply to the same retailer it can cause disputes. Also the distributors do not pledge loyalty to the company. This problem is faced in dense markets like NCR where distributors are very closely located. Like in Gurgaon sector 14 market, spice distributor itself is doing retailing as well although there are other retail stores in the market whom he himself sell! There is a clear limited control over distribution; i.e. spice people cannot take action against any non performer or in some cases high performer doing some leakage in the system. The company does not have any MIS at the distributor level The company does not have any MIS at the distributor level where it can measure the sales done by the distributor. The distributors have their own software in which they fill in their sales of a period and send it to the company. Thus secondary sales are not captured frequently and spice is dependent on distributor for this data. It seems spice is not at all interested in tracking the final sales. There is no clear cut liability of goods damaged in transportation As told by the distributors, there is no clear cut rule for the liability of the goods damaged in transportation. Sometimes it is borne by the company and sometimes by the distributor. But if the value of the damaged goods is significantly high, it can result in a conflict between the company and the distributor. No exclusive retail stores to capture urban markets Spice has a very strong presence in tier 2 and tier 3 towns. But, in metros and tier 1 cities they fall way behind Nokia, Samsung etc. One reason is that spice on mobile store, Hotspot doesnt work on exclusive spice model but carry a full range of competitor products. Thus to capture the interest of urban consumer, apart from new higher end models, spice also need a strong independent stores more in the lines of Nokia priority dealers as part of its distribution network. No dedicated sales force to monitor distributor As per our discussion with Spice distributor and Spice sales team, sales person or ISDs are on a pay scale of State distributor. Although their targets and region is set by distributor, sometimes with the help of Area sales manager, since ASM does not have any ownership of sales force, all push efforts and execution of sales plans cannot be tracked to a definite level.
AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a complex illness that affects the brain tissue directly and undergoes gradual memory and behavioral changes which makes it difficult to diagnose. It is known to be the most common form of dementia and is irreversible. Over four million older Americans have AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, and that number is expected to triple in the next twenty years as more people live into their eighties and nineties. (Johnson, 1989). There is still no cure for AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s but throughout the past few years a lot of progress has been made. Doctors need a sure way to diagnose the disease before treatment or studies can be done. The diagnosis is an autopsy of brain tissue examined under a microscope. In addition, medical history, a physical exam, and mental status tests are used for diagnosis (Posen, 1995). Often, tests are done to rule out other potential causes of the dementia. This allows the identification of other causes of thinking and behavioral changes to be made before concluding that the patient has AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s or another form of dementia. The tests that are requested to be done include CT and MRI scans to rule out strokes or brain tumors which could account for change in memory and behavior; thyroid and psychological tests which can also detect thinking and behavior problems (Posen, 1995). AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is a result from a combination of factors that cause progressive brain deterioration that affects the memory and behavior of an individual. There are two known risk factors. The first risk factor is age. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s usually affects people older than 60, and rarely affects those younger than 40. The average age ALZHEIMERÃ¢â¬â¢S 3 of diagnosis is about 80 years old (Johnson, 1989). The incidence is about the same for all races, but women are more likely than men to develop the disease, because they live longer. The second factor is heredity. Family history plays a role in about forty percent of people with early onset of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s (Johnson, 1989). If your parents or a sibling developed the disease, you are more likely to, as well. But there are cases of families with several people who have had this disease and other members are not affected. These two factors are the only proven factors, but environmental research is being done to help with a possible protective effect for the disease. As of now, more research is needed to confirm any be... ...sion of the disease. In addition, the risk factors and preventive measures are quite clear. These can help those who are unaware of what AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is or how it progresses. Future studies may prove to be beneficial in preventing the occurrence of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, or at least the severity of itsÃ¢â¬â¢ progression. Informing people of this disease, the risk factors, and preventive measures at a younger age, can only prove beneficial in the decrease or possible elimination of this physically and mentally altering disease. Living a healthy life now can only increase your chances of having a healthier life in old age. ALZHEIMERÃ¢â¬â¢S 6 Remember: A rolling stone gathers no moss, So exercise your brain now to reduce future loss. ALZHEIMERÃ¢â¬â¢S 7 References Johnson, Barbara S. (1989). Psychiatric mental health. (2nd ed.). New York. J.B. Lippincott Company. Posen, P.B (1995, Apr.). AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. [ www.document]. (Visited March 12, 2000). URL:Http://www.mayo.edu/research/alzheimers.center. Wallace, Robert. (1998, March). AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. [www.document]. (Visited March 12, 2000). URL: Http://www.alzheimers.org/pubs/adfact.htm).
Friday, 19 July 2019
BiblicalÃ Flood Based Upon the Flood of Gilgamesh Ã Ã Ã Ã In the middle of the nineteenth century, archaeologists unearthed twelve clay tablets. Around the turn of the twentieth century, archaeologists finally managed to decipher the tablets written in Akkadian, the language of ancient royalty and diplomacy. The tablets tell of the story of Gilgamesh. (1) The eleventh tablet tells that Gilgamesh, in his quest for immortality set out on a long journey to look for his ancestor, Utnapishtim. Utnapishtim was already bestowed with eternal life by the gods. Upon reaching the island of Utnapishtim's abode, Gilgamesh was told a story by his ancestor of a great flood that once swept the world. (2) The similarity between this story and that of Genesis is astounding. The table below gives a comparison of both these stories. Ã The Epic of Gilgamesh The Book of Genesis (Utnapishtim told Gilgamesh that he was a true worshipper of the god Ea. When the gods decided to destroy mankind by a flood, Ea warned his devotee and told him): Ã¢â¬Å"O man of Shurrupak, son of Ubar-Tutu, tear down your house and built a ship; abandon wealth seek after life; scorn possessions save your life. Bring up the seed of all kinds of living things into the ship; the ship which you shall built. Let its dimensions be well measured.Ã¢â¬ Genesis 6:13-14 And God said to Noah Ã¢â¬Å"I have determined to make an end of all flesh; for the earth is filled with violence through them...Make yourself an ark...Ã¢â¬ Genesis 6: 17-19 Ã¢â¬Å"For behold, I will bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh...but...you shall come into the ark, you, your sons, your wife, and you sonsÃ¢â¬â¢ wives with you. And of every living thing of all flesh, you shall bring... ... M. Readings in Ancient History: Thought and Experience from Gilganesh to St. Augustine. Third edition. Lexington, MA: D.C.Heath and Co., 1987. Ã Budge, E. A. Babylonian Story of the Deluge and the Epic of Gilgamesh. Montana, USA: Kessinger Publishing Co., n.d. Ã Gardner, John and John Maier. Gilgamesh: Translated from the Sin-leqi-unninni version. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984. Ã Harris, Stephen L. Ã¢â¬Å"Gilgamesh.Ã¢â¬ The Humanist Tradition in World Literature. Ed. Stephen Harris. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., 1970. Ã Heidel, Alexander. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949. Ã Ignatius Holy Bible. Revised Standard Version, Catholic Edition. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1966. Ã Sandars. N. K. The Epic of Gilgamesh. New York: Penguin Books, 1972. Ã
Thursday, 18 July 2019
The internment of Japanese-Americans following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was shameful not only because of the fact that it was allowed to happen, but mostly because it was a national public policy joined in by all branches of the American government. President Roosevelt initiated the policy as the head of the executive branch by issuing executive orders declaring zones of exclusion for people of Japanese backgrounds, curfews, and even relocation programs to what some scholars have referred to as quasi-concentration camps. The legislative branch failed to protect the rights of these Japanese Americans; instead, Ã¢â¬Å"On March 21, 1942, Congress ratified and confirmed Executive Order No. 9066, which authorized criminal penalties for persons disobeying exclusion ordersÃ¢â¬ (Justl, 2009, p. 272). Ultimately, with both the executive and legislative branches having failed to protect or defend the rights of American citizens of Japanese ancestry, the United States Supreme Court would be called upon to decide whether these orders and policies were in violation of the American constitution. To be sure, the notion that Americans could be rounded up and compelled through force to confined in internment camps seems to offend the dearest principles of American liberty and justice. Hoping that the judicial branch would extend the constitutional guarantees to American citizens of Japanese ancestry, a man named Korematsu filed suit alleging that these orders and policies violated the American constitution in a case now well-known as Korematsu v. United States. This particular case originated when an American citizen, who was born and raised in San Francisco, openly refuse to obey the exclusion order issued by President Roosevelt. Korematsu was loyal to the United States, having volunteered for military service though rejected because of health limitations, and there existed absolutely no evidence that he posed even a minor threat to American national security. He was allegedly subject to the exclusion order purely because of is Japanese ancestry. Korematsu was gainfully employed, he had a girlfriend who was not of Japanese ancestry, and he took deliberate steps to avoid and later challenge the constitutionality of the exclusion order. Ultimately, he was arrested and relocated to an internment camp. Specifically, he was arrested because he refused to leave an area open to others but closed to those of Japanese ancestry and because he refused to voluntarily report to an internment camp. The judicial branch, like the executive and legislative branches before, failed to protect the rights of Japanese-Americans; indeed, Ã¢â¬Å"the Supreme Court upheld the exclusion order and KorematsuÃ¢â¬â¢s convictionÃ¢â¬ (Justl, 2009, p. 274). Significantly, however, the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision was a six to three majority rather than a unanimous decision. The majority reasoned that war constituted a national emergency and that certain laws and orders designed to prevent spying or sabotage were sufficient bases upon which to restrict or eliminate individual rights protected in the constitution for the duration of the emergency. This case and its rationale still functions as a landmark type of legal case because it stands for the proposition that the constitutional rights of Americans can be suspended in times of national emergency. The minority opinions, recorded in dissents in the Korematsu case, argued that these laws were racist that they offended American ideals, and that the rights guaranteed by the American constitution ought to always apply regardless of alleged fears and national emergencies. This case effectively allows the judicial branch to relinquish its sacred duties as guardian of the constitution in national emergencies; this, in turn, gives the executive and legislative branches powers perhaps not intended when the founders of the constitution sought to create a stable balance of powers. In the final analysis, the Korematsu case is troubling because it stands for a legal principle that transcends its origins. More particularly, it can be seen in contemporary times that the War on Terror has been used as an indefinite type of national emergency to restrict or eliminate rights for American citizens even though the main enemies have been defined as foreign nationals. Arab-Americans and Muslims have in this way replaced the Japanese-Americans of World-War Two. Additionally, the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has been treated as a type of environmental national emergency and the media has been restricted by the American Coast Guard from covering the story on-site. Korematsu is a tragedy both because of the individual harm done to Fred Korematsu and because it continues to stand for a proposition to the effect that politicians can cry Ã¢â¬Å"national emergencyÃ¢â¬ in order to suspend or eliminate constitutional rights for different classes of American citizens. It is perhaps time that the Supreme Court reasserts its intended role as a true guardian of the constitution by accepting a case challenging the Korematsu precedent so that it can eliminate the vague national emergency exception. References Justl, J. M. (2009). Disastrously Misunderstood: Judicial Deference in the Japanese-American Cases. Yale Law Journal, 119(2), 270+. Retrieved June 2, 2010, from Questia database: http://www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o&d=5036190287
Is there a concern ab stunned people befitting too dependent on engineering science? Do you think too ofttimes engineering is too a good deal for your children? Does technology affect the mastermind? Some of us think that there is a supposition that too much technology is touching our children. They come along to non get the theory of things. Kids today cant seem to think in a logical way. E reallything done for children is through some face of technology. Technology is taught at such a late age that kids dont get the opportunity to learn on their own and by the time they go far teenage it seems to become much evident.Sarah Harris in a MailOne article Too much profits substance abuse can hurt teenagers brains says, Excessive lucre use whitethorn cause parts of teenagers brains to waste away, a study reveals. Scientists discovered signs of atrophy of greyish matter in the brains of heavy internet users that grew worse over time. This could affect their soaking up and memory, as well as their exponent to make decisions and set goals. It could also bring low their inhibitions and lead to inappropriate behavior. Researchers took MRI brain scans from 18 university students, aged 19, who spent eighter from Decatur to 13 hours a day acting games online, six days a week.The students were classify as internet addicts after state eight questions, including whether they had tried to give up using computers and whether they had lied to family members about the beat of time they spent online. comp atomic number 18d them with a manipulate group of 18 students who spent less than two hours a day on the internet. One set of MRI images pore on grey matter at the brains wrinkled surface, or cortex, where the processing of memory, emotions, speech, sight, hearing and motor swan occurs.Comparing grey matter betwixt the two groups revealed atrophy within some(prenominal) small regions of all the online addicts brains. The scans conveyed that the l onger their internet dependence continued, the to a greater extent serious the terms was. The inquiryers also found changes in deep-brain weave called white matter, through which messages pass between different areas of grey matter in the nervous system. These morphologic abnormalities were probably associated with useful impairments in cognitive control, they say. The researchers added that these abnormalities could create made the teenagers more easily internet dependent, but concluded they were the consequent of IAD (internet addiction disorder).Our results suggested long-term internet addiction would result in brain structural alterations, they verbalise. The study, published in the PLoS ONE journal, was carried out by neuroscientists and radiologists at universities and hospitals in China, where 24million youths are estimated to be addicted to the internet. Wake-up call Dr Aric Sigman say it was a shame that we enquireed photos of brains to distinguish that sitting i n front of a screen is not good for childrens health In Britain, children spend an average out of five hours and 20 minutes a day in front of TV or computer screens, according to estimates by the market-research agency Childwise. Dr Aric Sigman, a fellow of the royal Society of Medicine, described the Chinese research as a wake-up call.He said It strikes me as a unholy shame that our society requires photos of brains shrinking in order to take seriously the common-sense self-confidence that long hours in front of screens is not good for our childrens health. Baroness Greenfield, professor of materia medica at Oxford University, described the results as very striking. She said It shows theres a very clear descent between the number of years these young people have been addicted to the internet and changes in their brains. We need to do more experiments and we need to invest more funds in research and have more studies like this.The neuroscientist has previously warned there could be a link between childrens poor attention spans and the use of computers and social-networking websites. She is concerned that not enough attention is universe paid to evidence that computer use is changing young peoples brains. Professor Karl Friston, a neuroscientist at University College London, told the scientific American journal the techniques used in the small-scale study were rigorous. He said It goes against intuition, but you dont need a large sample size. That the results show anything significant at all is very telling.
Wednesday, 17 July 2019
As we go on in bread and butter we example legion(predicate) ch all in allenges and overbold emplacements that we deal with. A new situation that most commonwealth deal with is college and all the c coursees that go down along with it. What many a(prenominal) race go int realize is that gritty nurture, in many ways, is uniform and differrent from college. Not only be people ever-changing but the surroundings and plump castrate as well. There argon some things that seem to neer change such as some lock and people. The majority of the work in college is precise exchangeable to broad(prenominal) inform. An ideal would be the Critical persuasion alkaliwork.In that tell apart you engender to re- keep open a clock judgment of conviction that is not proper and strain it make in blue train I had to do the resembling thing in my English class. The c anywheres atomic number 18 as well exchangeable in exalteder(prenominal) instruct I would surrender to write papers all the period just like in college. In World Culture class you fool to result questions passim the entertain. In soaring school you had to do the alike(p) you would have to read through the book and answer questions. The immensegest difference from racy school to college is the accountability level that you take on.When youre in higher(prenominal) school teachers tend to watch over what you do and chase you down for an assignment you didnt do. 1 College is antithetical the only person that makes for certain your work fits done is you. 1 No professor chases a scholar down for work and watches eachthing you do they correct the papers and tell you what is wrong. The student has the responsibility of either doing the work or not. 2 Time steering is something that eitherone essential develop in college. In high school you have a usual usage that you follow, daylighttime to day.In college you unremarkably have a few classes a day or perhaps classe s that are back to back. 1 Sometimes the classes are early and sometimes they are late. It is up to the student to manage there time doing homework and new(prenominal) activities in college. Time management is big because you discount be lazy and not take time to do work or you could take every moment to accomplish things you need to do throughout the day. 2 An example would be playing telly games when you should actually be writing a paper or doing other important work. This can make or break someone who is going score to college.In high school people usually fall into cliques or certain groups of people they hang around with. College and high school are similar an example is that if someone plays football tend to travel by more time with each other. They usually speak with one another or share a bond which no one else usually has. In high school people tend to do the same thing, kids group up with either the jocks or other groups. People just make friends more easily if t hey have something in common. A big difference between college and high school is a new place of living.When youre at home and going to high school your parents cook, shop, and make sure you do your work. At college things are different you have to do all those that you parents did at home. An example would be doing your laundry. Not many kids do their own laundry, so when it comes to college, things are very different. Thats why people say that when youre in college you tend to get along due to the new style of living, which is living on your own. In college the amount of classes and the time you have to go for is different from high school.In high school you go in at the same time every day, which for me was 715 A. M. In college classes are usually a few times a week and longer than classes in high school. An example would be that my roommate only had one class on Wednesday which was 400 p. m. to 700 p. m. In high school you have the same classes every day and usually for the sam e amount of time unless your high school does double blocks. The point is that in high school its the same routine day to day but in college it changes day to day. acquisition new things in high school are similar to college.How teachers taught us in high school was by handing out notes or taking notes from the nigrify/white board. College is the same way in my economics class we take notes from the black board or sometimes a projector. The notebook that I have now for notes is very similar to the one I had in high school. Writing papers in college are more common than in high school. In high school you do write papers but not as many as you tend to write in college. In college on average I have devil papers a week to type and in high school I would maybe get one a week. They would also go more in-depth when correcting our papers.They would mark every mistake down, which kind of helped me dumbfound better when it came to writing papers. The lengths of papers in high school see m to be the same as the ones in college such as length and the subject/structure. All the papers that have been passed in are about the same as high school. In high school papers were usually someplace between 3 and 5 pages. The papers that have been turned in usually consist of the same format and writing style. Unity is something thats very different from high school to college. In high school you pretty much know everyone, because every day you see the same people over and over.Even in large schools you go to the same classes every day and see the same people. College is different because its bigger and most of the kids you usually dont see again. You may see them formerly or twice a month if lucky. This also depends on what type of school you go to. If you go to a small college then there is a good chance you will see people over and over again. As people go in life they will face changes every day and also see things that are similar to the past. When people go to college th ey tend to relate to this, they face many similarities and differences from high school.The differences between high school and college seem to be on a bigger scale, such as living and responsibilities. The differences seem to change people, mostly for the better. People learn as life goes on college helps doing this because it shows people new differences which people must change their ways to adapt to a new stage of life. Works Cited 1. The Differences High School vs. College. 2003. 27 April 2007. http//www. murraystate. edu/secsv/fye/hsvscollege. htm. 2. High School vs. College. 2007. 27 April 2007. http//advising. buffalo. edu/firstyear/highschool_college. php.