Friday, 31 May 2019

Julius Caesar :: essays research papers

Julius Caesar was the dictator of Rome from 61-44 BCE. He was born in the year 100 BC into a patrician family who claimed decendancy from the kings of Alba Langa. At the condemnation of his birth, Rome was still a republic and the empire was only beginning. Caesar made his elbow room to praetorship by 62 BC and many senate felt him a dangerous, would-be(prenominal) man. The senate did their best to keep him out of consulship. He finally became consul in 59 BC.Caesar was at the pinnacle of his power when he returned from Spain in 45, yet within a year he was once again facing problems with the Optimates, and had seeming lost the support of the ever fickle populance of Rome. The problem was himself and his absolute power. With his impatience, he often denigrated the land as a shadow without a body but the majority of the conservative aristocracy failed to understand this. In Caesar they saw only the threat of a king, a word which was linked with the word tyrant in Roman history wh ich is cruel or unjust rule.Now that Caesar had control over the lands of Bituriges, Vercingetorix started to remove his army to the Boii oppidum of Gorgobina whom Caesar had settled under the protection of the Aedui after he had defeated them in battle. Caesar sent word that he was going to help them. On the carriage he stopped his promenade at Vellaundunum, oppidum of the Senones, and set up siege. He didnt want to leave any enemies behind him who might get in the way of the grain deliveries and supply. His siege lasted three days before a deputation was sent out to surrender. The Carnute had only jus heard of the siege at Vellaundunum. They gathered troops to garrison Cenabum, the Carnutes stronghold. The Carnutes had expected the siege to last longer than it had and were suprised to see Caesar camped outside of the town. The Carnutes decided to escape over the bridge at the back but Caesar predicted they would furnish that and sent troops to guard the bridge during the night . When Julius heard of the escape, he set fire to the gates of the Oppidum and entered because the bridge and roads were so narrow, that few inhabitants escaped.Julius Caesar stated that cowards ease up many times before their deaths The valiant never taste of death but once.

Thursday, 30 May 2019

Indian Nationalism :: Asian Asian History

Indian NationalismFactors Promoting NationalismRacial arrogance - on the part of the British created resentment by Indians. They were tempered as second-class citizens and were given only the poorest jobs. British in positions of power, such as General Mayo (Viceroy of India) openly made statements of racial superiority. educated Indian professionals - felt they were denied equal opportunities within the machinery of British rule (such as the Indian Civil Service). They founded a ultranationalistic movement that initially sought equal perspective for Indians and eventually sought full Indian independence. Anti-Westernisation - Britain had changed Indias traditional institutions with apparently little respect for the existing culture and religion. British modernisation - probably helped spread the nationalist message. They had improved transport and communications. Indian Association 1885 - Began as a powerless talking shop but turned into the Indian National Congress, where Indian s could voice their complaints against the British. Educated politicians used this parliament to rally support for the movement. Lord Curzon (Viceroy 1898-1905) gave no concessions to the natives. He allowed them no representation and saw them as inferior. Division of Bengal 1906 - was unpopular because it divided the regional cultures. In India, many people had greater affinity to their region than to the whole country. Splitting Bengal led to a swell of nationalist support. Factors Restraining NationalismIndia was divided regionally - There was great cultural and religious divide across the regions. There were 200 different languages spoken across India so communication on a large scale was difficult. There were also many religions (including Sikhs, Muslims, and Hindus) who would not co-operate with each other. Indian Congress was divided - Liberal wing led by Gokhale, and basal wing led by Tilak.

Dostoevsky as Performer Essay -- Russian Literature Christianity Relig

Dostoevsky as PerformerStorytelling and watching aloud played a valuable part in young Fyodors life, influencing his own later successful writing endeavors as well as his performance of literature. His nanny and wet nurse introduced the Dostoevsky children to folklore and lives of the saints by means of the stories they told. Nanny Alyona Frolovna told the children stories of ancient Russia, of Saint Sergey of Moscow subduing a bear by the power of his holiness, of heroes and legends and folk tales, Christianity and Russian myth intertwined the stories were so vivid and frightening that the children had derange sleeping (Gunn 10). During the winter their former wet nurses would make a ceremonial visit to the Dostoevsky family, staying two or three days and spending the afternoons telling stories. much(prenominal) is the power of the spoken word that these women, according to Leonid Grossman, awakened the boys interest in the oral poetry of his people and at the same time fostere d the development of that exquisite language--freeflowing, emotionally charged, profoundly Russian and memorably expressive--in which, in time, his worldfamous books would be written (10). Joseph Frank attributes these storytellers tales of the saints with feeding Dostoevskys unshakable conviction that the soul of the Russian peasant was imbued with the Christian ethos of love and selfsacrifice (1976, 49). The Dostoevsky children were also entertained and educated with oral readings by their parents, especially during the long evenings of the Russian winter. As the family gathered in the parlor, the physician father would read aloud before dinner when he was not occupied with his patients, and the children often went to sleep with the sound of one of th... ...Indianapolis and New York BobbsMerrill, 1975. Gunn, Judith. Dostoyevsky Dreamer and Prophet. Oxford Lion, 1990. Hingley, Ronald. Dostoyevsky His Life and Work. London capital of Minnesota Elek, 1978. Kjetsaa, Geir. Fyodor Dos toyevsky, A Writers Life. Trans. Siri Hustvedt and David McDuff. New York Viking, 1987. Levin, Iurii. Dostoevskii and Shakespeare. Dostoevskii and Britain. Ed. W.J. Leatherbarrow. Oxford and Providence, RI Berg, 1995. 3981. Magarshack, David. Dostoevsky. New York Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1963. Miller, Robin Feuer. Dostoevskii and the Tale of Terror. Dostoevskii and Britain. Ed. W.J. Leatherbarrow. Oxford and Providence, RI Berg, 1995. 13958. Mochulsky, Konstantin. Dostoevsky His Life and Work. Trans. Michael A. Minihan. Princeton, NJ Princeton UP, 1967. Seduro, Vladimir. Dostoyevski in Russian Literary Criticism

Wednesday, 29 May 2019

Increasing Animal Adoptions at Shelters Essays -- increase dog adoptio

It was a hard day for me. My dog of almost 7 years had to be draw down, and it was the first pet I had ever lost. My dad wasnt too keen on me getting a new puppy. We started looking at early(a) dogs and my dad found one that he thought we should get. My parents decided to take me on a surprise trip to the animal shelter to get a better look at the dogs that we wanted to adopt. As we entered the dog room, barks started to echo around us and excited dogs jumped up on their kennels to make sure we aphorism them. As we got to Macks cage, I think his puppy face must have melted my dads heart because he agree to adopt him and take him home. Today, years later, I still believe adopting Mack was one of the best decisions I could have made. Through adopting Mack, I was inspired to military volunteer at the animal shelter as soon as I was old enough. One day I went up just to look at animals and I realized that there were many dogs that had been in the shelter for a long time. No one was interested in adopting them because they werent a touristed breed, or they were not the right color. From that day forward, I decided that I was going to find a way for those dogs to be adopted, so they had the chance to be as happy as Mack is, in a home and out of a shelter. By finding a way to positively resurrect breeds prone to indifference, unwanted color, and through establishing positive behaviors and character, animal shelters will be able to increase canine bridal. One of the most significantly impacting characteristics on adoption success is breed preference. Because some breeds are talked up more than others, for example, beagles compared to pitbulls, people would be more likely to lean towards a beagle if they had to choose between those deuce breeds for... ...olor and breed are not able to be changed, but by changing the behaviors of a dog, a shelter could increase the dogs appeal no head the breed and color. Works CitedWoodward, Lucinda, Jennifer Milliken, and So nya Humy. Give A Dog A Bad Name And Hang Him Evaluating Big, Black Dog Syndrome. Society & Animals 20.3 (2012) 236-253. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.Siettou, Christina, Iain Fraser, and Rob Fraser. Kent University. 2012. PowerPoint. 14 Mar 2014. .DeLeeuw, Jamie L. Animal Shelter Dogs Factors Predicting Adoption Versus Euthanasia. (2010) n. page. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. .. N.p.. Web. 14 Mar 2014. .

Digestive Disorders (liver) :: essays research papers

Digestive DisordersAmebic Dysentry is a disorder in which there is anaccumulation of pus rigid in the liver. This is usually caused byan internal parasite or organism. When dealing with this liver affection there are a few symptoms to look away for. Jaundice, whichis something that will make your skin and eyes go yellow is asymptom of Amebic Dysentry. Other symptoms to look out forare chills, a heights fever, sweating, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weightloss, abdominal pain, possible joint pain and an all around basicdiscomfort. Amebic Dysentry is caused by the same micro-organism thatcauses a variety of intestine infections. This organism is carriedthrough the blood stream to the liver to where the abscess isformed. For starters, the collection of pus is the bodies whiteblood cells forming to protect the liver. However, it collects toomuch and that is how the abscess is formed. When you arediagnosed with amebic liver you are very likely to also induce anintestinal infection fr om the disease as well. This is not true for allcases though. Most cases in which both(prenominal) occur are in places ofhigh temperatures and poor sanitation. Africa, Latin America,Southeast Asia, and India have many health problemsassociated with the disease. The most common way to get thisdisease is from one person to another. The other most commonway is through unhealthy food and badly sanitized water. Noteating properly and ebullient drinking will only worsen thedisease.There are many ways that you can help prevent getting thisdisease. If you go to a international country, especially in the tropics,always drink purified water, always peel fruit and vegetables, andcook your food at any time possible. If you think that you may have amebic liver, you should geta liver scan and an ultrasound treatment. If you are diagnosedwith it the usual treatment for this is Antimicrobial therapy is the

Tuesday, 28 May 2019

Conflict Between Barbarism and Reason in Lord of the Flies Essay exampl

Conflict Between Barbarism and Reason in manufacturing business of the locomote William Goldings Lord of the Flies is a carefully constructed fable that was, in Goldings words, an attempt to trace the defects of society back to the defects of human nature. (Grigson 189). The novel shows a group of English boys reverting to savagery on a Pacific island. The all toldow deals with the conflict between humanitys inner barbarism on one side, and the civilizing influence of reason on the other. Each of the two characters I have chosen to air and compare is presented in the novel as the most influential representative of severally of the two sides. Jack, the chief of the hunters, representing the hidden human passion and almost creature cruelty, and Ralph, with Piggy and a few other children, who is representing human common sense. When the reader enters the book, they find the whole group of the boys on a small island by and by they had been evacuated from their hometown and aft er their plain had crashed leaving them on the island with no grown-ups. At the beginning of the book the position of Jack and Ralph is more or less equal. They are both well-conditioned boys of instruct age, who find themselves on a lonely island with some other boys of various age, but not older than themselves. They share similar opinions about their situation and its solution. They both want to be rescued and taken home. They both realise that there are a lot of things they must do to survive on the island until all of them get rescued. And lastly, they both are dominant types, but yet at the beginning of the novel they both acknowledge each others authority and behave to each other in a friendly way. At the return Ralph found himself alone... ... Epstein, E.L. Notes on Lord of the Flies. Lord of the Flies. U.S.A. Puntnum Publishing Group, 1954. 185-90. Fitzgerald, John F. and John R. Kayser. Goldings Lord of the Flies Pride as Original Sin. Studies in the Novel 24 (1992) 78 -88. Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. U.S.A. Puntnum Publishing Group, 1954. Golding, William. Lord of the Flies as Fable. Readings on Lord of the Flies. Ed. Bruno Leone. Sand Diego yard Haven Press, 1997. 88-97. Houston, Daryl L. 1995 Goldings themes taken from http// The Concise Encyclopedia Of Modern World Literature (1963) ,edited by Geoffrey Grigson, New York, Hawthorn Books Inc., pg. 189-190 Woodward, Kathleen. The Case for Strict Law and Order. Readings on Lord of the Flies. Ed. Bruno Leone. Sand Diego Green Haven Press, 1997. 88-97.

Conflict Between Barbarism and Reason in Lord of the Flies Essay exampl

Conflict Between Barbarism and Reason in overlord of the go William Goldings Lord of the Flies is a carefully constructed fable that was, in Goldings words, an attempt to trace the defects of society back to the defects of human nature. (Grigson 189). The novel shows a group of English boys reverting to savagery on a Pacific island. The earmark deals with the conflict between humanitys inner barbarism on one side, and the civilizing influence of reason on the other. Each of the two characters I have chosen to argument and compare is presented in the novel as the most influential representative of each of the two sides. Jack, the chief of the hunters, representing the hidden human passion and almost puppet cruelty, and Ralph, with Piggy and a few other children, who is representing human common sense. When the reader enters the book, they find the whole group of the boys on a sm completely island later they had been evacuated from their hometown and after their plain had cra shed leaving them on the island with no grown-ups. At the beginning of the book the position of Jack and Ralph is more or less equal. They are twain well-conditioned boys of drill age, who find themselves on a lonely island with some other boys of various age, but not older than themselves. They share similar opinions about their situation and its solution. They both want to be rescued and taken home. They both realise that there are a lot of things they must do to survive on the island until all of them get rescued. And lastly, they both are dominant types, but yet at the beginning of the novel they both acknowledge each others authority and behave to each other in a friendly way. At the return Ralph found himself alone... ... Epstein, E.L. Notes on Lord of the Flies. Lord of the Flies. U.S.A. Puntnum Publishing Group, 1954. 185-90. Fitzgerald, John F. and John R. Kayser. Goldings Lord of the Flies Pride as Original Sin. Studies in the Novel 24 (1992) 78-88. Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. U.S.A. Puntnum Publishing Group, 1954. Golding, William. Lord of the Flies as Fable. Readings on Lord of the Flies. Ed. Bruno Leone. Sand Diego thou Haven Press, 1997. 88-97. Houston, Daryl L. 1995 Goldings themes taken from http// The Concise Encyclopedia Of Modern World Literature (1963) ,edited by Geoffrey Grigson, New York, Hawthorn Books Inc., pg. 189-190 Woodward, Kathleen. The Case for Strict Law and Order. Readings on Lord of the Flies. Ed. Bruno Leone. Sand Diego Green Haven Press, 1997. 88-97.

Monday, 27 May 2019

Clean Drinking Water Essay

Our primary needs be food, pissing and shelter but pee is the most important need of every person. Without piss, we cannot survive. Even for wiz day, we cannot live without water supply. If we have safe and clean water for drinking , well live healthy and prosper. The clean water we drink and which is germless is called potable water. The water we drink in our homes, is supplied by the municipal community. We think that it is safe and germs free but in reality it is not fully safe for victimization in ho purposehold whole kit and in like manner for drinking , for the reason that it is filtered in huge tanks the big particles and comparatively small particles are filtered but not purified . So we should ensure that we purify the water before drinking.There are two types of water i) The drinking waterii) The water for household worksThere are different sources of water and are classified as Natural sources Rivers , Ponds etc.Man made resources Canals, pipeline services etc.B efore drinking water , we should purify it by using certain purifiers . If we drink dirty or unsafe water that contain germs then well fall ill and certain diseases will be caused such as diarrhoea , typhoid etc. People wash their clothes and their animals also take bath in rivers and pounds due to which the water get dirty and some(prenominal) types of germs are generated in the water and are transferred to the infected person to the healthy person . these types of diseases which are transmitted from one person to the another are called inherited diseases . If we take care of some small-n-small things, then we can maintain our health because prevention is better than cure. We receive potable water from the canals, rivers, and ponds groundwater is also potable. now, the question is that how is water polluted?Some ways of water pollutionSome factories dispose their chemical wastes into the rivers due to whichwater is polluted. People according to their rituals , throw ashes in wa ter , due to which water is polluted. Due to the lack of education, people dispose the dead bodies also in water bodies , again water is polluted. Due to the excessive use of pesticides, and insecticides our ground water is polluted .How we can prevent water pollution?We should organise several programmes to aware people about the cleanliness of water. At school take , we should develop healthy habits in the students, so that they can understand the importance of cleanliness. We should conduct several activities such as plays and skits etc. to aware students about the cleanliness. chat up should issue notices to such factories which dispose harmful chemicals in water bodies. We should also aware the factory workers about the safely disposing of harmful chemicals in water bodies. Now , the question is that how can we clean and purify dirty water? The water we dispose in sewage is cleaned and purified by the government in several water treatment plants.How water is purified in these plants The dirty water is passed through some parallel bars to remove bigger impurities like polythene bags , fabrics etc. The import step is sedimentation in which comparatively small particles settle down in tank The third step is decantation in which water is separated by the help of a scrapper. The next step is chlorination in which germs are killed by the help of several disinfectants such as ozone , chlorine etc. When the water gets chlorinated it leaves a odour which is then controlled by another process called UV Radiation.This essay conclude that we should save water because the amount of fresh water on nation is limited. Out of the total area of earth , 75% of the area is covered by water but out of this area only about 2% water is fresh and even out of this percentage about 1.5%of water is in form of glaciers and 0.3% is groundwater 0.2% water is usable. Our present Prime Minister Shri Narendra Damodar das Modi has also taken some initiatives such as Swachh Bharat,Swa stha Bharat Abhiyan. His role in making Indian society aware of the cleanliness and conserving water is significant. CBSE has also initiated a few travel to make the students aware of the cleanliness of the environment and our surroundings .

Sunday, 26 May 2019

Psychoanalytic Model Paper Essay

When we talk roughly Psychoanalytic theory the first name that comes to instinct is Sigmund Freud. Even though they are different psychologists that contributed to psychoanalytic theory and its instruction, Sigmund Freud is known for being the founder of this theory. He is famous for his work on sexual bias of neurosis, his deal of hysteria, puerility seduction controversy, and dream analysis, among other theories worry id, ego, and superego. Psychoanalytic Theory is the theory of the unconscious(p) sense mind mind mind, and the personality development. another(prenominal) concept, that helped radiation diagram psychoanalysis, is the early ideas of psychopathology. Like any other theory, there is always criticism, and other psychologists that do not share the same view. In Freuds case, he was criticized for his way of collecting and recording selective information from his sessions with patients. excessively for his theory of women having penis envy, and that he focused o n the past behaviors sort of of paying attention to the patients goals, future hopes, and motivations. Psychoanalytic Theory focuses on the study of the unconscious and abnormal behavior. Three of the major influences of psychoanalysis were philosophical speculations about the unconscious, early ideas about psychopathology, and other evolutionary theory. The theory of the unconscious mind is that it is a big influence in our life whether we are sleeping or awake.Freuds speculated that our actions were a manifestation of the unconscious consequence of childhood suffer or emotion. It was Fechner that used the analogy that the unconscious mind is like an iceberg. This analogy helped inspire some of Freuds work so much that he notwithstanding quoted Fechner is some of his writings. There were other psychologists before Freud that suggested the theory of the unconscious mind however Freud claimed that he found a way to study it scientific exclusivelyy. According to Freud, the unconscio us mind slips and exposes our true views, desires, emotions and behavior in dreams. This is known as the Freudian slip.Psychopathology also had a great influence on the development of Psychoanalysis. The study of mental indisposition dates back to 2000BC. The Babylonians believed that mental illness was the shell of demon possession and that the only treatment was thru magic and prayer. The Hebrews also believed that the cure for mental illness was thru magic and prayer. They also believed that the cause of mental illness was the cause of sins. The great Greek philosophers believed that mental illness was the cause of the disorder of thought process. The treatment was the advocate of the healing word. In other words, they believed that therapy was the answer to mental illness. When Christianity became popular they convinced the people that mental illness was the result of the evil spirits sending us back to 2000BC mentality.The only difference is that the Christian Church believe d that the only way to get rid of evil spirits and possessions was thru torture and execution. It wasnt until the eighteen deoxycytidine monophosphate that mental illness was considered as a behavioral problem. People displaying irrational behavior were sent to an asylum also known as the cemetery for the electrostatic breathing. This inspired other psychiatrists to find forms of treatment for the mentally ill. The Emmanuel Movement focused on talk therapy sessions. Elwood Worcester believed that psychological issues can be in some cases the cause of mental illness. The movement became so popular that when Freud came to the United Sates with the concept of psychoanalysis they welcomed him with opened arms.Sigmund Freud is believed to be the father of psychoanalytic theories. His research was based on his theories about the conscious and unconscious mind. He believed that our actions, emotions, and true thoughts are stored deep in our unconscious. He actually got inspired by Fechne rs analogy that the mind is like an iceberg. The part that is above water represents the conscious mind, and the part that is deep in the water is the unconscious mind. Freud strongly believed that our deepest desires were stored in the mind, and no divine power could permute thatnot even religion. He liked using the free association technique by permit his patients talk about whatever came to mind. Freud believed that by letting the patients express their thoughts they would uncover repressed memories that were the cause of their behavior.He noticed that his patients talked about childhood suppressed memories that involved sexual issues. At first he thought that his patients neurosis was caused by childhood trauma of sexual abuses. Later he suspected that they were fantasies that his patients were reporting and not the actual abuse. One of his theories is that all sons have a sexual attraction towards the mother and all girls towards the father. Freud published a paper talking ab out his theory of childhood seduction. This paper created so much controversy that some people were angry, and other had mixed emotions. Freud believed that sexual frustration was the cause of neurosis.He was actually obsessed with the subject because of sex because of the deprivation of sex in his life. By analyzing his dreams he realized that the unconscious mind can manifest thru dreams. Years later he published a hand The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). Even though Sigmund Freuds is considered the father of psychoanalysis it was Charles Darwins work that inspired Freud. Most of his views came from Darwins ideas on psychoanalysis like the mean of dreams, the unconscious mind, sexual arousal, and even childhood development. Frank J. Sulloway was a recognized historian of science, and he found that Freuds way of thinkingwas inspired by Darwin. What Sulloway did was to check the books in Freuds personal library, where he found copies of Darwins works. Freud had read them all and had written notes in the margins.(Schultz, D 1969 pg293). Even though Freud contributed to the line of products of psychoanalysis there was criticism of his work.Some scholars believe that his work was reliable due to poor record keeping. He did not make a direct transcript of each patients words but worked from notes made several hours after seeing the patient (Schultz, D 1969 pg315). This subject matter that his notes of the sessions with hispatients were compromised by his opinions and ideas. I can see way people would be concerned with his methods of data collection. There is a chance that he misunderstood what his patients were telling him. For example, when my husband and I have an argument theres time when I misinterpreted what he said. My recollection of the argument is different from his recollection of the argument.In his case, it is important to have the intimately accurate information. Other scholars believed that he influenced the patients answers and only heard wh at he wanted to hear. Examination of the actual cases referred to by Freud reveals not a single(a) instance in which this was the case. There is no evidence that any patient ever told Freud she had been seduced by her father. This is nothing more than an inference on Freuds part. (Kihlstorm, 1994, p.683) (Schultz, D 1969, pg316). Concerns about the credibility of his work arose because of inconsistencies with his research, his notes, and the work he published. His work was limited to notwithstanding a number of people and considered incomplete.There were other psychologists that also contributed to the development of Psychoanalysis. Carl Jung worked closely with Freud but after 1914, he developed the idea of analytical psychology. This was his own version of what psychoanalysis should be and opposed some of Freuds work. Jung believed that what shape our personality are our goals, hopes and aspirations and not just childhood experiences like Freud suggested.Personality can change w ith time. During our lifetime, we can experience several personalities depending on the experiences and the level of maturity. This means that you are not the same person you were in high school. As time passes you learn from your experiences and adapt to your environment as it changes. One of Jungs theories is that the unconscious mind is formed by two levels. One is the personal level where all the memories, wishes, faint perceptions and suppressed memories are.The second form of unconscious is the collective unconscious this is where all the universal andevolutionary experiences are. For example, the need and instinct to survive that gets passed on for generations. He also referred to this as archetypes of the collective unconscious. We typically experience archetype in the form of emotions associated with significant life events such as birth, adolescence, marriage, and death or with reactions to stream danger. (Schultz, D 1969, pg.327). He also suggested the theories of introve rsion and extraversion along with the types of functions and attitudes. Another psychologist, that also made a great contribution to psychoanalysis, was Alfred Adler.Like Jung, Adler did not share Freuds views on the Oedipus complex. Adler was more interested in the conscious mind than the unconscious mind. He also believed that our plans for the future are the ones that influenced behavior and not the past experiences. Some of his theories are the creative power of the Self and that the order in which we are born matters. Karen Horney also contributed to the development of psychoanalysis. She had many disagreements with Freuds theories except for the unconscious motivations. She did not share Freuds view that women had penis envy instead she suggested that man had womb envy. These psychologists helped developed psychoanalysis. They all brought interesting and exciting new ideas to the table.These theories helped shaped and develop psychoanalysis. Even though SigmundFreud is conside red the father of psychoanalysis the one that surface the way for others to follow, in fact, it was Charles Darwin how inspired Freud theories. It was Darwin who paved the way for psychoanalysis, but Sigmund brought attention to it by claiming he found a scientific way to study the unconscious mind. Freud had many theories some were accepted by scholars, other theories were not. For example, Childhood seduction caused controversy, and some psychologists did not share his view of the Oedipus complex. Even his method of collecting data was criticized causing doubts about the credibility of his work. The one thing they did agree onwas of the existence of the unconscious mind and how it influenced a persons thoughts, emotions, dreams, personality, and behaviors. Psychoanalysis began with just a philosophical speculation about the unconscious mind. Shaped by the early ideas about psychopathology and developed by evolutionary theories.ReferencesSchultz, D. (1969). A history of modern ps ychology (10e ed.). New York Academic Cohen, T. (2003). Sigmund freud The founder of psychoanalysis. School Library Journal, 49(9), 231. Retrieved from http//

Friday, 24 May 2019

The Gifted Children

Started in the 1970s, Americas Gifted & Talented programs are used to enhance the plan of students included in either category in order to challenge and strengthen their unique abilities. These students are usually provided a separate class with specialized lessons in all areas and a teacher with a special degree in keen education. I feel that it is important that the teacher was a endue student who would know what the students must face as above average members of their school. The job market for apt education offers a wide range of opportunity and dexterous teachers are needed all over theOne of the earliest programs for smart and talented students was set up in 1974, at The Old benefaction Center, in Virginia Beach. Students scoring within the top 3% of students on an assessment test are referred here to be further challenged. These students are considered gifted and hand special teachers and classes to promote development of their talents and minds. Programs like this b egan to pop up around the nation in the 70s however, gifted students were looked down upon by teachers, parents, and peers. some(prenominal) people considered them to be freaks because they were different.They didnt understand the implications of the terms gifted and talented. Most people simply expected gifted students to act more fester or to be geniuses, even though gifted students are the same as other children in their needs as human beings. Some gifted students were forced to grow up too fast and some simply ignored the fact that they were smarter than others, thus, they were lost in the shuffle. The irony of it all is that gifted-ness awaits to run in families and the children of these repressed gifted students are, themselves, But what exactly is a gifted student?Students (elementary & secondary) are given a repertoire of tests. These tests check IQ, psychomotor ability, specific schoolman aptitude/talent, creative and productive thinking, leadership ability, and skills in the visual and performing arts. The main requirement, the IQ, is tested by a standardized IQ test (remember, however, that IQ tests are not always perfectly accurate). Ratings are given to each bracket of IQ scores If a student receives a rating of gifted or heightser (130+), he/she is considered to be a gifted student and is introduced into the designated programs.These students are given the opportunity to choose classes that are meant to teach them how to use their minds for particular thinking, reasoning, and artistic pursuits. Students in these classes are also exposed to culture, literature, and other subject areas that are not usually covered in what they term common classes. The gifted classes are mainly in an open format allowing the student to create the parameters of his/her work and allowing them to be creative in their learning experience. Each class is presided-over by a teacher that has specialized degrees in gifted education.Almost every school in the United St ates has a need for a gifted class, devising job opportunities endless there are never Gifted teachers must have both a degree in education (secondary or elementary) and a degree in special education (gifted). These teachers are individuals that must have stamina, people skills, and open minds. It is also important (to the students) that the teacher himself/herself was also classified as gifted. It sets a common bond, shows them that the teacher understands the problems they face as so-called smart kids.These students are often ridiculed by heir peers and looked-down upon by their teachers. They are often garbled from others their age by a barrier that can only be described as their intelligence. This is why, often, gifted teachers have degrees in administration, counseling, or psychology. every teachers that I interviewed told me that a continually upgraded education is a must (as are additional degrees). In order to keep up with the students one must expect seminars, workshops , special classes, etc. There is no end to the amount of education that could help you to understand gifted students and the role of their teacher.Also, if a teacher has surplus educational qualifications, he/she could be asked to step up to the position of administrator or, more often, counselor. This means pay raises. Though the average salary for teachers is approximately $27,500 per year, it is a worthwhile undertaking according to Jane Mansueto, It is incredible to work with gifted students. They are incredible She went on to remark that it is fascinating to imagine that they are of the same take aim of intelligence as the teacher and what they must be feeling inside.She feels that the students are not othered by what their peers think, but actually tend to understand that others opinions mean little compared to their own. Mrs. Mansueto taught at Elm Grove Middle School for 5 years. She commented on her role as a gifted teacher to live of one part mentorship, one part hards hip, and one part friendship. When asked what kind of hours she keeps, she laughed and asked if she was supposed to have time off. According to Mrs. Mansueto, unlike a normal teacher, a gifted teacher has no books to go by or preset material to teach, or, for that matter, a preset subject to teach.They are given a blank page and, using input from students, must draw up lessons from every subject area and constantly challenge the inquisitive minds of the gifted. Jane Mansueto attended triplet College where she majored in both elementary education and gifted education. Her favorite part of being a gifted teacher is being with the students, working hand in hand with them to plan and carry out projects and trips. Though the pay is average, and there is not much room to be promoted if you wish to remain in the classroom, gifted teaching has its personal rewards.Jeff Simpleton, a gifted teacher as well as a former gifted student, states, I really think that by being gifted, I am in touch with what they have to go through. They know that I can understand. Mr. Simpletons class consists of 6 high school students, who have many problems due to the intelligence barrier and a kind of isolation that has built up over the years between themselves and their classmates. They seem to feel that they have a reputation that they must live up to. The students try to please everyone they push themselves with sheer motivation and determination and drive.Mr. Simpleton feels that this is what makes them so great. He feels that anyone with a sense of adventure and a need for something new day after day would find teaching a gifted class to be the perfect job for Gifted teachers are important to the development of their students minds. They are understanding individuals who must work hard to make the class interesting and challenging. With the proper education it is possible to go far as a teacher of the gifted. Various Internet sites. No info available for documentation.

Thursday, 23 May 2019

Mansfield Park; Empire & Orientalism from Edward Said Essay

Edward verbalizes abridgment of Jane Austens narrative in her 3rd novel Mansfield put (1814) is based on his own studies of orientalism. This margin is defined by verbalize as a variety of false assumptions /depictions of Eastern people within Western attitudes. This is achieved, he argues, through the literary discourse provided by post-enlightenment, post-colonial American/European (Western) authors. Said draws our attention to an underlying theme of Mansfield Park, which is empire. Said recycles his interpretation of stereotyped Muslims, Arabs & Egyptians and applies it again to a different hearty group. He does so by examining the novels representation of the Atlantic slave trade (in the West Indies), and in turn concludes that Austen essential assert British values of imperialism and empire. He points come to the fore the ease with which Austens characters refer to Antigua, and convinces us that Austens infrequent use of this word is evidence of her personal support of the degradation of slaves.In his analysis of the text, Said starts at the beginning, and relies heavily on the ignorant way in which Sir doubting Thomass colony is isolated from his family and domicile, which remains proudly on face land, miles across the globe. He implies that the slight references to Antigua do no neverthelessice to its own beauty, history, and the fact that it is, in comparison, a paradise island. However Austen does actually support this title of respect herself, as Lady Bertram does no justice to India, wanting only the commodities it can offer I may confuse a shawl. I think I bequeath have two shawls His ultimate point is that the Antigua seen in Mansfield Park is no more than a place for work, necessary for obtaining personal luxuries and fortune for the locals of Britain. Austen doesnt deny this in her novel, but she doesnt shout about it either. Saids writing just reminds us of how unfair the situation was, by pointing out the geographical space in be tween Mansfield Park (where the money is spent and enjoyed) and the Antiguan sugar plantation (where the money is produced).His critique of the ease with which the familys inescapably are met by a sojourn in the Caribbean is unnecessary and useless in explaining his point, it merely serves to highlight the fact that the slave trade was, at its peak, very(prenominal) successfully organised and achieved, due to the political militaryforce. Sir Thomass means will be rather straitened, if the Antigua estate is to make such short(p) returns, Mrs Norriss comment proves that Austen is aware of the dep hold onence of the family on their slave trade income, as is Lady Bertram, because her reply is Oh that will soon be settled. Although his wife is unwilling to spend time talking on the subject, this type of ignorant attitude seems to be a convention of realism which Austen applies to her characters systemically, in hopes that their final outcomes will explain her own disposition on the s ubject. Said constantly alludes to Austens lack of concern for the slave trade, because her narrative lacks the description which is needed to properly elaborate the subject, and the setting.Said argues that without the slave trade, the Bertrams could not have been possible, but again, I believe Austen is fully aware of the fact that slavery enables the Bertrams to flourish in Mansfield Park. Otherwise, she simply would not have written so much about wealth and class in relation to the success of women, for example in the end of Pride & Prejudice (1813) Lizzie chose love over money, and Mr Darcy chose love over class. Furthermore Austen includes the downfall of the slave industry within her narrative, and in turn she shows the downfall of Sir Thomas because of the latter. Sir Thomas is depicted (in the end) as having remorse for his actions, and having learned his lesson through redemption. Jane Austen is stereotyped by Said as a typical euro-centric academic, nave towards the REAL threats, inequalities and inequitys of the world. Just like the slaves Sir Thomas had the advantage of owning, Fanny becomes the only slave who is able to dwell in Mansfield Park. I believe Austens hopes were that she would be seen as the epitome of the slave She could hardly believe it.To be placed above so many elegant young women It was treating her like her cousins Austen explains, from the very commencement chapter how the class/background ideas of the era are a hindrance to her success, at home and in society. Overall she is treated as below standard, but by the end of the novel she is happy, reasonably comfortable and is married to the one whom she was meant to be worth less than. She was constantly referred to as from a different class, background, and place. Those notions of breeding comparing her to a mere puppy breed her up with them from this time, and suppose her even to have the beauty of an angel, and she will never be more to either than a sister. Fanny herself r emarked upon the dead silencewhich followed from her uncle, after her enquiries about the slave trade. She concluded that because she showed a curiosity and pleasure in his information which he must wish his own daughters feel she regretted asking about the slave colony, as if she just re-realised that she isnt fit to do certain things.Her character reflects ideas of rank and persecution and conquest she is the ultimate realist of the novel. With regard to the character of Sir Thomas and his silence on the subject of his work, Said would most likely argue that he is selfish and ignorant and and so doesnt permit any time being wasted on the subject. However, Austen is more likely treating the subject with the shame and embarrassment it deserves. It is my view that Austen would have been merciful towards these slaves and could not surely condone such hegemony, oppression and empire? After all she herself was a victim of oppression, being a female author ineffectual to take credit a nd receive praise for her own work within society. Austen ended her life as a spinster, having never married a man, masking that she didnt conform, for whatever reason(s), to social expectations of women. Moreover, her life was dependant on the males within her family, as per the UKs laws regarding rights, inheritance and property, because she had nothing of her own.Therefore she would be hypocritical to support the forced labour of slaves for the benefit of the nation she somewhat rejects. Supposing Austen was supportive of Britains imperialist venture for empire, surely someone with such priorities would have settled and married, just for wealth and security? This is summarised in Susan Fraimans writing Lacking the franchise, enjoying few property rights (and these because she was single), living as a dependent at the edge of her buddys estate, and publishing her work anonymously, Austen was arguably a kind of exile in her own country In conclusion I completely confute Edward S aids claims toward Austen his statements are judgemental and a little confused. Moreover, his attention to detail is lacking in research, as Fraiman cleverly states here So ready is Said to offer Austen as Exhibit A in the case for cultures endorsement of empire.Indeed the degradation of slaves was clearly fact, however, if Austen herself is an outsider to Mansfield Park and its narrative, then her opinions would be channelled through her characters fate. In my opinion, Said fails to take into account the fate of such characters, and the possibility that humans can exercise remorse andrehabilitation. Said draws the conclusion that Austen is lazily making trivial references to other important changes from this period, one being the Napoleonic revolution. However, I think that in the period and place she lived, it would have been nonsensical to openly critique the powers of the government, being that it really WAS un-just it would have been too dangerous to do so.BibliographyAusten, Jane, Mansfield Park (Oxford Worlds Classics, London 1814)Said, Edward, Jane Austen and Empire, farming and Imperialism (Knopf, New York 1993) http// accessed 19/10/2012 Fraiman, Susan, Jane Austen and Edward Said Gender, Culture, and Imperialism, Janeites Austens Disciples and Devotees edited by Deidre Lynch (Princeton, Princeton 2000) https// accessed 19/10/2012

Wednesday, 22 May 2019

Undecided Audience Outcome

Nikki Westerman En1420 Unit 2 assignment 1 Chapter review and define 1. What are the five elements in the rhetorical situation? Use trace to help you remember. Answer Text, Reader, rootage, constraints, Exigency. 2. How can a reader use the rhetorical situation to analyze an argument essay? The targeted readers are other students who switch had or could have similar experiences. The author expects the students to identify with him and agree that such policies should be abolished.Other readers might include professors and administrators who would probably be less likely to agree with the author how a viewer cans use the rhetorical situation to analyze an image? The targeted viewers are people in the United States, but also in other parts of the world, who read this newspaper either online or in print. The photographer expects the auditory sense to be interested in what is going on in Haiti in general, but also to show an interest in natural disasters of this sort.The photograph wo uld expect a sympathetic audience who shares his humanitarian values. How can a writer use the rhetorical situation during the planning phase of writing a paper? As a writer you can use the rhetorical situation to help you think vitally and make decisions about your own writing. 3. Why is the audience important in argument? T0 help give critical opinions what types of positions might an audience initially hold?A friendly audience, an undecided audience, a neutral audience, a hostile resistant audience an unfamiliar audience a linked audience. What possible outcomes are associated with arguments directed to each of these audiences the planned outcome is to confirm these audiences beliefs and strengthen their commitment. An undecided audience outcome can have final agreement with you anew interest in the issue and a commitment to work out a position on it. . What is discourse fellowship? Audiences affiliations. To what discourse communities do you belong? None how does a discourse c ommunity help establish common ground for its members? Monthly meetings 5. What is the ecumenical audience? One who agrees on everything? What are the special qualities of the audience? There is none Why is it a useful idea? I didnt go through anything on this.

Tuesday, 21 May 2019

Phantom Limb: Possible Treatments to Kill the Pain Essay

The phenomenon of shade limb was first described by a French doctor, Ambroise P are, in the 16th century however it was non until 1866, subsequently the American Civil War, when Doctor Wier Mitchell published his first account of the malady, coining the term Phantom Limb. Phantom limb is the bang of persisting sensory perceptions after limb amputation and remains one of the best-known, but puzzling phenomena within medical science (Oakley & Halligan, 2002). Phantom limb nuisance (PLP) is a frequent egress of the amputation and ca maps con attituderable discomfort and disruption of daily activities.Originally, PLP was thought to pick out been unoriginal to nerve damage at the site of amputation but succeeding evidence showed that diligents who harbour undergone regional anesthesia continue to experience unreal limb bother despite the cut-off of irritation whizz to the amputated area (Melzack, 1997). This lead to the belief that the pain sensation experienced by enduri ngs with PLP may be receivable to nerve impulses or signals generated at the spinal cord level. This, however, was refuted on the basis that patients with transection of the spinal cord assuage complain of persisting specter limb pain.It has been argued then that the brain areas that correspond to the human body could be the one responsible for the phantom sensations (Melzack, 1997). This was based on the fact that much of the human (and primate) body is represented by distinct brain areas located in the somatosensory and motor cortex on both side of the central sulcus. Consequently, even after limb removal, the brain areas representing those parts remain structurally and functionally intact.It has been argued that the activation of these bodily disconnected brain areas by adjacent brain areas (representing other intact body parts) may be a partial neurophysiological explanation for the production and maintenance of the continuous perceptual experience that is the phantom limb. This functional remapping results in some slip of papers in the referral of selective sensory information from an intact body area (such as the brass section or shoulder) to the phantom limb (Halligan, Zeman and Benger, 1999).The remapping hypothesis is supported by functional imaging (Kew, Halligan, Marshall, Passingham, Rothwell, Ridding, Marsden and Brooks, 1997) and behavioural studies (Ramachandran, Stewart and Rogers-Ramachandran, 1992 Halligan, Marshall, Wade, Davies and Morrison, 1993). Given the magnitude and speed of onset of the reorganization (within 24 hours of amputation) it is unlikely to be a product of neural sprouting but rather the unmasking of existing but previously inhibited neural pathways (Ramachandran and Blakeslee, 1998).In addition, these abnormal plastic changes in the central nervous system associated with the phantom experience have been used to explain the consistently high incidence of pain attributed to a limb that no longer exists (Ramachandran an d Blakeslee, 1998). Several other theories have been proposed to explain the pathophysiological processes behind the PLP phenomenon but despite all of these, the exact cause of PLP remains uncertain. As a consequence, the current interventions for the condition are just as varied as the litany of many possible yet complex mechanism of PLP.This literary follow-up will assay the possible interference options available for the counseling of PLP victimisation information from published literature through searches in research databases using the keywords phantom limb, phantom limb pain, biofeedback, treatment, and phantom limb illusions. Treatments of PLP There are different modalities available in treating PLP ranging from pharmacological agents to psychophysiological therapy. The treatment outcome varies from get along to start out and more even from patient to patient.A careful evaluation is essential before considering any of of these treatments in order to obtain a more sepa rate approach in the management of PLP. Thermal biofeedback Biofeedback relies on instrumentation to measure moment-to-moment feedback about physiological processes. It provides patients with information about their performance in various patch (Saddock & Saddock, 2003). Using this electronic feedback, the patient is made aware of certain sensations such as skin temperature and muscle tension.A case report describing the use of thermic biofeedback combined with electromyogram (EMG) in treating a 69-year-old man slimy from burning and shooting phantom pain suggested that biofeedback is an effective treatment modality for severe phantom limb pain (Belleggia & Birbaumer, 2001). The rationale behind the treatment was based on the premise that most patients complain of intolerance to cold after amputations which tend to offend unpleasant or pain sensations in the pigeonhole.The treatment, however, required several sessions and in this particular case, in that location were 6 sessio ns of EMG biofeedback followed by another 6 sessions of temperature biofeedback. The patient presented in this case also did not use a prosthesis and did not receive prior treatment for chronic pain and the entire treatment process was done in a controlled environment where everything is calibrated and maintained to avoid external bias.Although the treatment outcome of the case report was favorable, there is no absolute guarantee that the same beneficial results can be expected to other patients with PLP especially to those who are already using prosthesis and to those who are already refractory to previous chronic pain therapies. Also its efficacy and adaptability in actual clinical settings remains to be studied. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) The use of electroconvulsive therapy have been common in patients with psychiatric disorders such as depression.This involves the utilization of electric stimulation by means of two electrodes placed bilaterally on the temple to produce con vulsion. The synthetic seizure that followed have shown efficacy in patients with a variety of pain syndromes occurring along with depression (Rasmussen & Rummans, 2000). Using this evidence, 2 patients with severe phantom limb pain refractory to multiple therapies but without concurrent psychiatric disorder were treated using ECT.One of the patients previous treatments included biofeedback, transcutaneous galvanic nerve stimulation, hypnosis, epidural injections, and multiple analgesic medications including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opiates, and adjunct analgesics including carbamazepine and nortriptyline. He was referred for ECT by the anesthesia pain service due to previous ripe responses in depressed patients with a variety of non-phantom limb pain syndromes.The other patient in the case theater also had numerous treatments including transcutaneous galvanizing nerve stimulation, intra-axillary alcohol injections. Epidural steroid blocks, stellate ganglion block s, biofeedback, and medications including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, opiates and carbamazepine. After ECT, both patients enjoyed substantial relief of pain with one case in remission from PLP 3. 5long time after ECT. From this clinical note, it was concluded that patients with PLP who are refractory to multiple therapies may respond to ECT.It should be emphasized that ECT have several complications including dental and muscular injuries secondary to the severe muscle twitching accompanying the induced convulsion. The concurrent use of muscle relaxants have been effective in minimizing such injuries. The most troublesome side effect of ECT, however, is memory loss. Some patients report a gap in memory for events that occurred up to 6 months before ECT, as well as impaired ability to retain new information for a month or two after the treatment (Smith, et al, 2003).You may equate this to the data loss in computers after an unexpected reboot. Hypnotic mirrors and phantom pain H ypnotic procedures have long been used in treating a variety of pain syndromes. This involves the use of shadow and imagery to lighten the patients pain experience (Chavez, 1989). A case study reports the use of a hypnotically induced realistic mirror experience which modified long standing intractable phantom limb pain despite generating a qualitatively inferior experience of movement in the phantom limb compared to that produced with an actual mirror (Oakley & Halligan, 2002).Using hypnosis, two main approaches to modifying phantom limb pain experience were identified in the study ipsative imagery approach and a simulated movement approach. The ipsative imagery approach takes into account the way the individualistic represent their pain to themselves and attempts to modify that representation in order to alleviate the pain experience. The movement imagery-based approach encourages the PLP patient through hypnosis to move the phantom limb and to take control over it.In the stud y, a case of a 76-year-old woman who had an above-knee amputation of her right leg secondary to peripheral vascular dis serenity was presented. The investigators emphasized that she was pain-free at the time of her operation and that her PLP all begun two years after surgery. There were several components of her pain in her missing limb. She complained of feeling pins and needles in her foot, her toes felt like they were being held in a fast vice, a slicing, cutting pain in the sole of her foot and a chiselling pain in her ankles.After several sessions using the ipsative imagery approach, the patient claimed solid pain relief of most of her pain but the vice-like pain remained. The movement imagery-based approach also showed notable pain alleviation in another case that was presented, this time of a 46-year-old man who had experienced PLP since suffering from an avulsion of his left brachial plexus some five years prior to the study.At the beginning of the study, the patient rate d his pain at 7 using a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 as pain free and 10 as the worst pain imaginable. During treatment, the patient had 0 rating and immediately after treatment it was 2. 5. The result of the study showed that hypnotic movement imagery is worth analyze further, considering the comparative ease of use and the potential of additional information as to the possible neurocognitive mechanism involved in PLP. Mirror treatmentMirror treatment uses leg exercises performed in front of a mirror to demonstrate increased motor control over the phantom limb. In contrast to hypnotic imagery techniques which uses hypnotically induced virtual mirror experience, mirror treatment involves the use of a real mirror apparatus to replicate the movements of the real limb with the phantom limb. The first case study of the use of mirror treatment in a person with degrade limb amputation who was reporting PLP was presented by MacLaughlan, M. McDonald, D. , & Waloch, J. (2004).During the inte rvention, there was a significant reduction in the patients PLP associated with an increase in sense of motor control over the phantom, and a change in aspects of the phantom limb that was experienced. Although this effect was successfully replicated by using hypnotic imagery alone, the significant difference between the two approaches was the qualitatively more powerful experience of movement in the phantom left hand with the real visual feedback.The case study which was conducted in a conventional clinical setting supports the potential of mirror treatment for PLP patients with cut limb amputations. The investigators, however, emphasized that the case study cannot indicate the extent to which beneficial effects are due to somatosensory cortex re-mapping, psychosocial factors such as individual differences in body plasticity, somatic preoccupation or creative imagination, or to other factors.Since it is the first case study of the use of mirror treatment in a person with lower li mb amputation, similar case studies are needed to ascertain the treatments applicability to other patients with lower limb amputations. Botulinum toxin Pharmacological agents have also been employed in the management of PLP. , Botulinum toxin type A, however, has not been previously used for this indication. In fact, it was only recently that this toxin has been used for medical purposes, especially in the field of cosmetics.Botox, as it is popularly known, has been beneficial in relieving muscular tension in the face due to its muscle-relaxing effect. Once considered a biological weapon which causes gas gangrene, this toxin inhibits the synaptic transmission of acetylcholine at the motor end plate and muscle spindles of the skeletal musculature and influences nociceptive transmitters. A pilot study on the influence of the agent on phantom pain after amputations was recently reported (Kern, Martin, Scheicher, et al, 2003). Four cases of patients with knee amputations who were suffer ing from severe stump pain following surgery were presented.After botulinum toxin injection, significant reduction of pain in the amputation stump was experienced among the patients. Citing a watertight correlation between stump pain and PLP and the occurrence of of stump pain without obvious pathology, the study clearly emphasized the need for further investigation into the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of post amputation pain. Other treatments of PLP Multiple other modalities, adjunct medications and anesthetic/surgical procedures have been used in the treatment of PLP with varying long term success.Although at least 60 methods of treating PLP have been identified, successful treatment of persistent type is not commonly reported. Tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, calcitonin and mexilitine have been used with varying success (Delisa, Gans, Bochenek, et al, 1998). Other surgical procedures and drug regimens have also been proposed. Despite all these, an establis hed role of separately of these treatments in the management of PLP remains a subject for future investigation. Summary Despite the advances in medical research and treatment, PLP is a phenomenon that continues to perplex the medical field.Several theories that were proposed to explain the etiology of the condition remain the subject of continued discussion. The pathophysiology involved in PLP could be multifactorial rather than the effect of a single factor. In the United States, there are approximately 1. 6 million people are living with limb loss according to the National Limb Loss Foundation reading Center. Between 1988 & 1999, an average of 133,735 hospital discharges per year was due to amputation. It is estimated that 50%-80% of patients with amputations complain of PLP (Delisa, Gans, Bochenek, et al, 1998).The actual incidence of this problem is, however, unclear because the condition tends to be underreported because of the complexity and singular nature of the complaint . Finding the most appropriate treatment for PLP has proven to be a difficult challenge for medical practitioners. The current treatment options for the condition are just as varied as the litany of many possible yet complex mechanism of PLP. Thermal biofeedback combined with electromyogram (EMG) have been demonstrated to all in all eliminate PLP after treatment.In a case study, the use of ECT have shown pain relief in patients with PLP refractory to multiple therapies. The use of hypnosis and visual imagery in several case reports has indicated significant success in modifying the pain experience of PLP patients. Interestingly, the success of this technique in treating PLP has presumptuousness a deeper keenness on the psychological aspect of the condition. Botulinum toxin, a drug considered as a very dangerous toxin that causes gas gangrene, has also shown promising results in alleviating stump pain.Multiple other modalities, adjunct medications and anesthetic/surgical procedures have been used in the treatment of PLP with varying long term success. Establishing an accepted role of each of these treatments in the management of PLP, however, would require further investigation. The highly varied approaches involved in the treatment of PLP present a unique burden especially for the superior general Practitioners (GPs) who provide the primary health for amputees in the community. A recent study suggests that GPs underestimate the prevalence, intensity and duration of phantom and residual limb pain.Moreover, inconsistencies in the reasons given for referral to specialist services for the management of phantom pain were reported. These findings have serious implications for the management of phantom limb pain, disability and psychological distress in amputees in that GPs not only provide first line treatment, but are also the gatekeepers for referral to other services (Kern, Martin, Scheicher, et al 2003). The prevalence of case studies presented in this review clearly shows the lack of major clinical trials targeted into identifying the best approach in the management of PLP.Most of these treatments are already being used for other diseases and there is ample literature to justify their use for PLP yet there is not a single searchable literature involving a bigger study population investigating any of the above methods. It is obvious that the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of these individual treatment methods cannot be ascertained by only a handful of case reports. More citywide studies should be done in order to formulate an acceptable protocol for the adequate treatment of PLP.

Monday, 20 May 2019

Role Play Exercise

Scenarios Assume that Asiatic is a new hired outdoor sales executive for corporation Lennox Design which provide adept stop solution for T-shirt and Uniforms supply. We get an Introduction from our existing customer who name Ms Eng that her lifter Ms Learn factory have a sports twenty-four hours event by next cardinal month. Now Asian had appointment with the purchases In-charge person Ms Elm, try to approach her to purchases our product to her event uniform.Asian Hi Ms check, I am Asian from Lennox Design, nice to meet you (Handing business card and a company prepargond free gift t-shirt to Ms Limit), You friend Ms Eng introducing me that you are interested to enact t-shirt for your company sports day event by the next two month. Ms Limit howdy Mr. Asian, nice to meet you too (opening the t-shirt plastic) Woo, nice design for this t-shirt, it is free to me? Asian Yup, this t- shirt picky deserve to you for free and this t-shirt is design from my company, you may see the quality for our product too. Ms Limit Thanks you, I like it very much.Well, we havent made decision for the t-shirt use at the day of events, but we had no much Idea for choosing the new t-shirt, any suggestion Mr.. Asian? Asian Yes, whitethorn I now how many pieces t-shirt and the budget for per pieces t-shirt you wish to order in this bodily process? Ms Elm Meme Elf consider the previous events experience, we need around 500-600 pieces red color study t-shirt with my company logo and my company have enhance the budget for this events to have a break dance benefit to our staff, we were set the T-shirt budget in ARMY per pieces.Asian, you are welcome. Here is the deposit elbow room ( pass the money to Asian ), and can I know when can get my t-shirt? Asian Well, normally after confirm the artwork, mass production will take reworking days to process the order. enchant do not hesitate to call me if Ms Limit have question for the t-shirt and souvenir, we are the company which sp ecialist in supply souvenir and t-shirt, I wish that you company can stage me more chance to serve you in the future. Ms Limit Mr.. Asian, you are modest and see you. (shake move on with Asian) Asian See you Ms Limit, Bye.

My Greatest Fear

My biggest cultism is somewhatthing that keeps me up many a night. I have a fear of heights, of drowning and of several other tangible things. However, I believe that when confronted with those, I will probably be able to deal with them in some cultivate or another (dont ask me how you deal with a fear of heights, but I will). This one that I consider to be my biggest is bid a disease, something I havent figured out how to deal with. The worst case is that I am not sure there even exists a solution to it.For me, the fear of nonperformance, the fear of hardship, the fear of not living up to expectations (my own, more than anyone elses) is what I consider to be my biggest in life. I can attribute a lot of my personality traits and obsessive behaviors to this fear. It whitethorn be a expedient excuse, but without any other valid or obvious reasons, I would like to apportion a significant part of the blame to this fearI think as the years have deceased on and as I have moved from one job to another, from one country to another, the coerce has only mounted and the fear of not stepping up has only increased. I mean, you spend thousands of dollars on an nurture and then several more thousand on another All you expect is for that to pay off, for your expertness set to broaden, for your intimacy base to widen and for you to only rise and grow in life. How can you not know the answer to something? How can you not be able to step up to a scrap or a question posed by someone? How can you not perform a certain job that you should have received the training for?And the funny part is that I never know this until very recently until it was pointed out to me by a friend. I was grumbling about not enjoying my job (a fairly recurring theme these days) and my current role, and one of my closest mates from the MBA simply asked me, Is it the job? Or is it your desire to be perfect and to expect to incessantly want to outperform that is not making you like it? And the n I thought about it yes, maybe he was right. Maybe I was expecting to know it all in all and to hit the ground running right from the outset I thought I had the skill and knowledge to do it all and didnt want to take the intermediary learning step And when I didnt, I unawares felt as though I was underperforming I wasnt living up toexpectations And worst of all, I was impuissance Fear realized, multiple sleepless nights followed.Having this fear may be a good thing (to some extent). It could also, however, be a bad thing, but it is something that has come to frame my thought process, my actions and my drive over time. I am thankful for it in many ways, and believe that I may not have through with(p) all that I have over the last several years without this sense of fear hardly now that I know, maybe it is time to develop a method of controlling it, of reining it in withal much of something is never a good thing, right? Or at least thats what I was always told when I went to th e fridge for more candy Is there then another fear that surpasses the fear of failure?So, even though I call this my biggest fear, and admit to it being so, I aint jumping off planes or climbing the Himalayas So for those who have tried to convince me to do some of these wacky things in the past, you may want to try again

Sunday, 19 May 2019

William Shakespeares Sonnet 18

William Shakespeares Sonnet 18 is part of a group of 126 sonnets Shakespeare wrote that are turn to to a young gentlemilitary personnel of great beauty and promise. In this group of sonnets, the speaker unit urges the young man to marry and perpetuate his virtues through children, and warns him ab step forward the destructive power of time, age, and moral weakness. Sonnet 18 focuses on the beauty of the young man, and how beauty fades, but his beauty will not because it will be remembered by everyone who reads this numbers. Shakespeare starts the poem with a fictionic question in line one asking if e should examine the man to a summers day.This asks if he should compare the beauty of a summers day to the beauty of the young man about whom Shakespeare is writing. Line two of this poem states Thou art more lovely and more temperate. moderate is used as a synonym for moderate by the author. In line two the speaker is describing the man as more lovely and more moderate than a summ ers day. This emphasizes the mans beauty and how the man is viewed by the speaker. Line three, Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, tells hy the mans beauty is greater than that of a summers day.Shakespeare uses rough winds to make up imperfections. The speaker is implying that there are no imperfections in the young man, but there are in the summer, so the man cannot be compared to a summers day. In line four the speaker adds to this thought by saying that the summer also does not last as abundant as the mans beauty then it cannot be compared to it. Line five states another imperfection of the summer. Shakespeare uses the eye of heaven as a metaphor in this line to describe the un.In line six Shakespeare uses the phrase gold complexion change intensity to describe the sun again which means that sometimes the sun is not hot enough, and that, as give tongue to in line five, sometimes the sun is too hot. In lines seven and eight the speaker ends the tortuosity by descri bing how nature is never perfect. Line nine starts the resolution of the poem by using the concomitant but.. Eternal summer in line nine is referring back to the mans eternal beauty, using summer to correspond beauty, and saying that the mans beauty will never fail like he summers beauty.In lines ten, eleven, and twelve the speaker says that the man, When in eternal lines to time thou growst (line 12) or when he grows old, will not lose bullheadedness of what is fair to him, and Nor shall Death brag thou wanderst in his shade (line 11) or he will not be poor in health and close to dying. Lines thirteen and fourteen say that as long as this poem is read, the mans beauty will never go away, because every time someone reads the poem they will be reminded of his beauty.This poem that Shakespeare wrote, in the musical octave, describes how all beauty fades except for the man about whom Shakespeare is writing. The octave also tells of how great the mans beauty is compared to everything else that is beautiful. In the sestet, the poem tells about how the mans beauty stays alive and out lives all other beauty. The poem is written in iambic pentameter. Shakespeare makes use of much symbolism and more other figurative devices in this poem that contribute and emphasize to the overall theme of the poem.

Saturday, 18 May 2019

Foreign Policy on Pakistan-India Relation

An aggressive, liberal and a pro-active foreign policy makes way for improved ties with the nations of the world. Predictably, the sectional scenario of southbound Asia, berthicularly of the region encompassing the countries of Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, China, Iran, Nepal, Bangladesh and the exchange Asian States is interchangeablely to remain volatile in the near future. Pakistan is a s bundleholder in the scenario and regional instability is inadvertently going to discombobulate a decelerating influence on the country road to peace and progress.With Pakistan and Indians sexual sexual congress existence strengthened via the tools of negotiations ND diplomacy, it give the sack be judge t get into inter-regional cooperation im recess be cat nattered. Thus, better ties amongst the 2 most significant neighbors in the region, Pakistan and India, symbolize enhanced cooperation in the South Asian region on the whole. The document sets out a two-faceted goal, Short-Term a nd Long-Term and bridges the proposed solutions to the principal issues between Pakistan and India, through a road-map.Cotton is charged at RSI. 108/kilogram tax on the Dairy Products is from 40-60%, Garments atomic number 18 charged at RSI. 85/piece, Agriculture Items at a duty of 35%. These rates be gener partner considered to be unfairly high. It must be menti aced that Pakistanis high-quality products like Cotton/Lawn Fabric and Bed occupancyns are in hot demand in the Indian markets (g) Pakistani exporters complain that India continues to exercise country-specific Imitation Import Barriers in Pakistanis case, (h) India argues that these NTIS (Non- Tariff Barriers) are the same for all of its trading partners, I) Pakistan itself does non fuck by a standardized import regime.Indian exporters, therefore, accept to deal with fewer restrictions of product quality and specifications, O) In August 2012, India lifted its ban on Pakistani businessperson to invest in India. Pro posed Solution Trade between Pakistan and India has the potential to reach US $ 10 Billionaire, thus (a) Pakistan should upgrade its manufacturing industry and improve the value- addition actiones of exportable items. Better-Quality products are more likely to have greater access to the Indian markets, (b) Pakistani manufacturers and businessperson are at a disadvantage because Indian exporters have fewer product restrictions in Pakistan while Pakistani exporters have to deal with strict product-quality specifications in India.Pakistan should regulate its import regime and maintain better standards for the quality of import items, (c) Pakistan should urge India to abide by the 3 landmark trade agreements (signed in February 2012) and simplify the following trade requirements ) Custom Documentation formalities, ) Tariff Structure, ) The whole procedure of obtaining and renewing the Bureau of India Standards (IBIS) License, (d) Pakistan should excessively urge India to ease the r equirement of agricultural permits ND auto licenses on imports culmination from Pakistan, (e) State Bank of Pakistan and Reserve Bank of India should open cross-b lodge branches on the earth of mutual benefits, (f) Both countries should work towards the opening of the Nabob-Cockroach Route (in Kinds, Pakistan) as a feasible trade route, (g) Pakistan and India should conciliate liberationists in the Visa Regime, including Multiple-Entry and Greater-Duration Visas for businessperson. Indian Home Ministry has agreed to relax its previous stance that it go out non allow relaxations in the business and civilian visa regime, unless Pakistan repulses action against the Iambi 6/11 terrorists, (h) Visa relaxations go forth help Pakistani rice exporters in learning technical expertise for rice cultivation. Pakistani automobile (specifically tractor industry) and cement industry can have strong potential in Indian markets if Pakistani manufacturers pull up stakes themselves visit Indi a frequently and explore the market of 1. 2 billion wad, (I) The Economic Zone between Karts (Pakistan) and Amorists (India) should be established, O) Pakistan must go ahead with granting the MFC Status to India on 3 conditions ) That Pakistan will maintain a well-prepared mad List for items which can non be imported from India.This will ensure the safeguard of Pakistanis local industry, ) That India will recompense by reducing its Sensitive List on items which can not be imported from Pakistan, including tariff relaxations on Pakistanis Textile, ) That India should lift its ban from Indian investors on investing in Pakistan. (II) SIR CREEK Out of all early(a) bilateral deviations between Pakistan and India, the Sir Creek Dispute can be expected to have a comparatively quick solution. The settlement of this dispute can be used as an important Confidence-Building Measure to piddle on to resolve other pending disputes. Sir Creek is a 96 km strip of irrigate. It is do up of marshes which makes it water system system-logged for most of the year. It runs in the Ran of Ketch area.The Ran of Ketch area lies between the south of Kinds in Pakistan and the State of Gujarat in India. historic evidence (specifically the 1908 Imperial Gazetteer of India) clearly indicates that during the British Rule in India, the Ran of Ketch was part of Kinds. Later, when India was partitioned in 1947, Kinds became a part of Pakistan (therefore Sir Creek also became a part of Pakistan). accord to Paragraphs 9 and 10 of the 1914 Bombay result (which was signed teen the regulariseance of Bombay and the Ruler of Ketch), the Green Line as indicated in the map clearly demarcated the boundaries of Sir Creek and included the whole of it in Kinds.India then argued that from the technical aspect, the Green Line is not a boundary plainly Just an indication of a boundary. India claimed that the boundary of Sir Creek lies manhandle into the water and that exactly half of Sir Creek i s part of India. To validate this claim, India endorses the Thales Principle. In 1965, Indian forces unfairly attempted to seize Sir Creek because India wanted to establish its naval base n the Gulf of Ketch. As a result, India gained control off part of Sir Creek. When the prospect of important mineral resources (oil/gas) was notice in the subsurface of Sir Creek, Pakistan and India became more serious about their respective claims.Both countries now realize that if they loose one kilometer of Sir Creek on ground, it would subsequently mean a loss of hundreds of square nautical miles of the capable economic zone under-water. Indians current stance is that boundaries should first be marked under-water and according to the under-water boundaries, the land boundaries shall be demarcated. Pakistanis current stance is to first demarcate on the ground and then under-water. Pakistan wants the adoption of the 1914 Bombay Resolution. Pakistan was willing to postulate transnational arbit ration because it believes it has a strong case. But India always wanted to keep this issue bilateral.Proposed Solution-1914 Bombay Resolution (a) Indians endorsement of Thales Principle is not applicable in the case of Sir Creek because Sir Creek is Water-logged and not navigable for most part of the year. The Thales Principle holds applicable only if for navigable areas. (b) The demarcation of land boundaries shall be done first. The demarcation of the under-water ocean boundaries will then follow. (c) Indians unreasonable argument that demarcation shall first be done under-water will have to be countered. Hydrosphere from two Pakistan and India have declared that environmental changes have occurred over the years and it is not come-at-able anymore to distinguish between territorial waters without demarcating the land area first. D) During the process of demarcation, the 1991 Pakistan-India Agreement on Advance Notice on Military Exercises, Maneuvers and Troop Movement will be strictly followed by both sides to ensure peace along the coastline of Sir Creek. E) After demarcating Sir Creek, both countries will submit their respective boundary limits to the kick on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLC). The CLC will consider and evaluate the data submitted by each country. (f) Here, Pakistan will automatically have a stronger case because according to the rules of CLC, India can not mention Sir Creek as a part of its continental shelf in the documents which it will submit to CLC. (g) 3 factors will however strengthen Pakistanis case. First, Sir Creek was a major water distributors of River Indus and Pakistan has an undisputed ripe over River Indus.Second, the Green Line shown in the maps of 1914 Bombay Resolution clearly brings Sir Creek in Pakistanis territorial domain. Third, the tail of Sir Creek terminates in Baden which is a zone in Pakistan. (h) Pakistanis claims are actually strong and it is very likely that the CLC will steadytually favor Pakistan. According to the United Nations prescript on the Law of the Sea (UNCLES), both countries are time-bound to resolve this dispute because unless this dispute is resolved, neither side will be eligible to exploit their respective Exclusive Economic Zones in the sea. (Ill) PRISONERS The settlement of Sir Creek Dispute can be followed with some other important Confidence-Building Measure. The area of Sir Creek is saturated with fishermen.Since territorial borders in water (and on land) are not properly marked, fishermen from both sides end up mistakenly trespassing into each others territorial waters. They are then arrested. The laws which are used by Pakistan and India to govern their seas and arrest these fishermen have not been conformed by UNCLES. Pakistani fishermen are arrested by India under the Maritime Zones of India actuates, 1976 and 1981. India is a signatory of he UNCLES but its maritime zone acts do not conform to the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea s (UNCLES). The Pakistan Maritime Security Agency (AMPS) and the Indian Coast Guard (ICC) shall resume the negotiations which were called off after the Iambi attacks. These negotiations will ensure a.That whenever Pakistani fishermen are detained in India, the Indian maritime agencies will straight inform the Pakistani maritime agencies and vice versa. B. That the ships and boats of the detained Pakistani fishermen will be handed over to the Pakistani maritime agency by the Indian maritime agencies and vice versa. Two concrete steps can be taken a. go Judicial Commission on Prisoners, 2007 Recommendations of this Commission (which was constituted by both governments and comprises of 4 superior retired Judges from each side) must be given immediate consideration and implemented. This Joint commission (if adequately em business officeed) can almost resolve the issue of prisoners. B.Agreement of Counselor Access, 2008 Under this Agreement, prisoners (in both, Pakistan and India) must be provided access to a Counselor immediately after being arrested. The major role of the counselor is to maintain the nationality of the prisoner. This process, however, often gets delayed unnecessarily. Often, this delay is from the country to which the prisoner belongs. Interior/Home Ministries, Foreign/ out-of-door Ministries and the gamey Commissions of Pakistan and India must therefore promptly strive to avoid any delays in the verification of the nationality of their respective citizens resign in each others Jails. In June 2012, Pakistan released 311 Indian fishermen. There are 21 deaf, mute and mentally crank Pakistani prisoners in Indian Jails. These prisoners have also comed their sentences.The Indian Supreme Court is coking into the yield of their release but it is encountering a lot of technical hurdles. Likewise, there are 18 Pakistani Prisoners of contend (of 1965 and 1971) still in Indian jails. The succeeding(prenominal) round of talks between the Foreign Mi nisters of the two countries is expected from September 7 to 9 (2012). There, the return of these 39 prisoners should be a top priority on Pakistanis agenda. If the Sir Creek issue is resolved, it becomes a moral binding on both parties to simultaneously release any those prisoners, who were arrested on the charges of Mistaken Trespassing. THE WATER ISSUE Between the two countries, it is India which is the upper-riparian state.And therefore, in this case it is India which is required to take sensible decisions to protect our peace negotiations from untimely termination. The Water Issue must not be treated as a Dispute because calling it a dispute will have its own repercussions. The solution is already in place in the form of Indus Water accordance, 1960 and only a re-interpretation of the treaty is required The ISSUE (a) sasss Indus Water Treaty gave 3 western rivers to Pakistan. India was allowed to use some water from these 3 rivers to begin with they enter into Pakistan. B) I ndia was permitted to use the water for hydrophone generation. The condition was that Indian usage must not alter the natural timing of flow and the amount of these waters as they enter Pakistan. C) With Indian hydrophone projects, the only concern for Pakistan is the timing of flow because hydrophone does not consume water so the quantity remains unaltered. The timing of the flow is critically important for agriculture in Pakistan. (d) In the 1960 Treaty, India was only allowed limited water storage. This was applied to all the dams which India will build on Jelled and Chance. E) The puzzle began with the installation of physical gates. India was allowed to install these gates to flush out the silt/waste (coming from glaciers), but India began employ it to unfairly stop and unfairly release water into Pakistan. (f) The problem will get more severe when India will complete the construction of Bursar Dam, Shanghaiing Dam, Peaceful Dam, Kowalski Dam, Deal Hustle Dam.In case India d ecides to go for Cumulative Storage or Cumulative Release of water from these dams, Pakistan will be completely vulnerable to mass destruction (which was allegedly the case with the 2010 floods). Words of prank Brioche (World Banks Senior Water Advisor and Neutral Expert on Baggier Dam case) must be cited for credit He says, A Journalist colleague in Delhi told me that the Indus Treaty is considered an integral part of Kashmir and when it comes to Kashmir, the Indian Ministry of External Affairs instructs newspapers on what they can and cannot say, and often tells them explicitly what it is they are to say. Proposed Solution-Negotiations and Negotiations Pakistan will have to diplomatically assert the right amount of pressure on India for the re-interpretation of the 1960 Indus Water Treaty.Right amount of pressure on India can be exerted by Pakistan in the form of legal hurdles and calls for international arbitration for Indian power projects being built on rivers Jelled and Cha nce. If the two countries can keep ego aside, there can be numerous ways in which the 1960 Treaty can be implemented to benefit both sides. A Joint monitoring system can also be formulated to ensure timely cast of water from India to Pakistan. But this is only possible when relations are more cordial and more organized religion has been developed on both sides. In fact, India has the potential to increase this flow during difficult planting seasons n Pakistan. This is not an unrealistic suggestion.India does have this potential and can do it without effecting its own power generation. But focuses, this can only be made possible when relations between both countries are friendlier. Joint Power toils (a) Indians power outage of 31st July 2012 affected 670 Million Indian citizens, and has considerably reduced the Foreign Direct Investment coming to India. (b) This scenario can trigger further collaborations and can get India on board for the Iran-Pakistan Gas grape Project. (c) reg ular army is particularly interested to normalize relations between Pakistan and India so hat Pakistan can retreat its forces from its east border and redeploy them on the Western borders along Afghanistan. D) On the other hand, why India is reluctant to join the Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline Project (which was called Iran-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline Project until India backed of is because India is a close ally of the regular army and the USA did not want India to be a part of this project because of its own concerns with Irans thermonuclear program. (e) But now, Pakistan can seek an advantage from USA. (f) Pakistan shall diplomatically convey this to America that the Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline Project is very essential, not only to address the acute power shortage in both Pakistan and India but also very specifically to enhance developmentalcollaboration between the two countries. (g) After this, it will be Americas call to realize that it must not continue to become an unfair pl ayer between Pakistan and India. Assuming that USA decides to stop exerting pressure on India, it will then entirely be Indians decision whether or not to pursue the Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline Project. H) After the episode of Indians biggest power failure (dated July 31 , 2012), chances are hat India will now be willing to resume talks on the IP Gas Pipeline Project. (I) Also, India aspires to become the regional power-house of South Asia and in the long term, it aspires to out-do China in this quest. If India actually aspires to become the regional power, it should start acting like one and must play its part in enhancing regional collaborations. This, is another reason why India should be more willing to pursue the IP Gas Pipeline Project. KASHMIR Kashmir strength In the words of Mir WAIS Muar Faro (Chairman All Parties Hurray Conference), Kashmir is not a bilateral issue between Pakistan and India, but a trilateral one which also involves the wad of Kashmir.SELF Momma Kashmir L iberation Front) Chairman Yaks Mali believes that the option of a obscure freeze (that is, to freeze the reckon in its current position for a few years before relations become stronger between Pakistan and India) is not feasible, without stopping the Indian operation in the Indian-occupied Kashmir. India can not afford to deep-freeze the matter because of the suspicion that the license movement will take over as concisely as the Indian operation is stopped. Three-e-Hurray Chairman Seed All Shah Gelling strongly advocates Kashmir Right of Self-Determination and purports Kashmir alliance with Pakistan. However, he once said Pakistan has morally, diplomatically and politically supported the struggle of the people of Jam & Kashmir, but this does not mean Pakistan can take a decision on our behalf.APPC (All Parties Hurray Conference) Chairman Miramar Muar Faro demands a) Armed Forces Special Powers Act (PAPPAS, 1990) shall be repealed (UN has called it A Violation of internationalis t Law and has asked India to revoke it), b) Indian troops shall be withdrawn from populated areas of the Valley, c) Political Detainees shall be leased, if India wants a peaceful resolution of the dispute. International Community Stance The International Community wants to resolve the dispute of Kashmir because it sees it as a threat to regional stability in South Asia if two nuclear states, Pakistan and India, are involved in such a tense dispute and are not engaging in economic collaborations with each other.Indians Stance India has a two-fold agenda on Kashmir a) lot that unrest in Kashmir is basically Pakistanis Proxy War and Pakistan is logistically supporting the Kashmir Freedom Fighters, ) Make the Line of Control (LoC) the international border between Pakistan and India. India is intelligently floating the LoC-Solution in the international community U. S and U. K are also supporting Indians stance as the ultimate solution for Kashmir. By proposing the LoC-Solution, India is suggesting that both Pakistan and India should enjoy reign over their respective part of Kashmir and that the Kashmir people can be allowed to travel between both move more freely.Proposed Solution-plebiscite (l) If Pakistan wishes to avoid the situation in which the International Community egging exercising diplomatic pressure on Pakistan to accept the Indian formula to settle the Kashmir Dispute, it must come up with more realistic alternatives that take into consideration the popular demands of the people of Kashmir. (II) Pakistan believes that the main issue is not the territorial control of the land of Kashmir but the right of self-determination of the Kashmir people. Pakistan should continue to advocate this stance. (Ill) Pakistan should use the globular forums to remind its international partners that Indian forces deployed in Kashmir, are violating the very basic human rights by imaging in acts of rape and child molestation. V) Pakistan should also use the global forums t o remind its international partners that so far, the Indian Government has been unable to get any political set-up received by the Kashmir people. (V) Pakistan should reiterate its support for the All Parties Hurray Conference (APPC) as the most prominent representation of the Kashmir people. Pakistan should also remind the international community that the APPC comprises not only of Islamic fundamentalists but also of liberal and forward-moving factions like Jam Kashmir Liberation Front GOLF) and the Miami Action Committee. VI) Pakistan strongly condemns Indians accusations that the Kashmir freedom struggle is sponsored by Pakistan.In order to counter these allegations, we invite Indians consent on requesting the United Nations to deploy more international observers along the Line of Control. (VI) Pakistan should counter Indians LoC-Solution by terming it a host solution which does not serve the purpose of the freedom movement. Pakistan believes that even after LoC is made the in ternational border between Pakistan and India, the Kashmir people will not stop their freedom struggle. (VI) Series of Bilateral & Trilateral Talks Pakistan should be proactive in the current on-going negotiations between capital of Pakistan and Delhi and should diplomatically ensure that these talks do not come to any momentary halts.Pakistan believes that time is of nitty-gritty and the bilateral dialogue with India should not be allowed to be influenced and stopped by other factors that govern the relation between the two countries. (a) Pakistan would like to begin the Series with Secretary-Level Talks between the Foreign Secretaries, and then, the Defense Secretaries of the two countries. (b) The Indian Government shall commit to freeze the military operation in the Unanticipated Kashmir for the duration of this Series. (c) The next level of talks will include the Political Leadership (Government + Opposition) of Pakistan, of India and of Kashmir. (d) To ensure the true represe ntation of the people of Kashmir, an election shall be conducted under international monitoring, to choose the political leadership from all states of Jam & Kashmir.This political leadership will then represent the territory at the negotiation table. (e) Pakistan strictly reaffirms that it will alone not entertain any third-party other than the United Nations, for the role of a mediator between Pakistan and India. In the unlikely scenario that India proposes to invite the U. S on board as the thirdly, Pakistan will rule it out by proposing the designation of China. Pakistanis argument is that the U. S is not a neutral choice because it already favors Indians LoC-Solution on the matter and has greater strategic interests with India. China, on the other hand, is the regional power-house and is a greater share-holder in South Asia.Chances are, that India will not agree to the name of China. Eventually, in case of a deadlock, both parties will retreat to the name of United Nations (XX ) Pakistanis principal stance is to vive the Right of Self Determination to Kashmir people via a Plebiscite. This stance will be achieved by implementing UN Resolution 47, according to which (a) Pakistan will withdraw its nationals (if any) from Kashmir, (b) India will withdraw the excessive military personals from Kashmir, (c) UN observers will be deployed to ensure that withdrawal from both sides, is of a reasonable proportion, (d) Once the withdrawal process is completed, the Owen Dixon Model will be adopted.This model divides Kashmir into 2 zones ) Kashmir Valley + Moslem Areas of Jam + Muslim Areas of Ladder + Muslim Areas of Cargill, ) Remaining Districts of Jam, Ladder and Lee. (e) Once the Owen Dixon Model is adopted, Plebiscite can be conducted under United Nations trusted supervision. The people will vote either in favor of Pakistan or India, (f) A 3rd option of land up Independence can be included in the Plebiscite. This option is favored by some Kashmir freedom parti es, like Manually Khans SELF. However, both Pakistan and India are reluctant about the inclusion of this option because that will ignite demands of emancipation from various areas within India