Sunday, 24 May 2020

Intelligent Design A Bona Fide Theory Essay - 1278 Words

Sir Isaac Newton once said, â€Å"Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who sets the planets in motion†. As a major contributor to modern physics with his discovery of gravity, Isaac Newton held a convicting belief in an intelligent designer who created the universe and humanity. According to Discovery Institute (n.d.), â€Å"The theory of intelligent design holds that certain feature of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection† (para.1). Although intelligent design is quickly becoming regarded as a scientific theory with more than 50 peer-reviewed journals published, as of now there is no tolerance for it to be taught in America’s†¦show more content†¦As described by Oxford University Press (n.d.), an education is defined as â€Å"a body of knowledge acquired while being educated†. The aim of any teaching institution is to give kn owledge and understanding to their students. As an alternative theory to evolution, intelligent design should be taught in public schools to enhance students’ knowledge of the theories regarding the origin of life. To be considered a scientific theory, the idea of ID must go through the process of the scientific method, which includes an observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. A brief overview of the scientific method behind ID is explained by the IDEA Center (n.d.), Intelligent design begins with the observation that intelligent beings produce complex and specified information (CSI). Design theorists hypothesize that if objects are designed, they will contain CSI. They then seek to find CSI. One easily testable form of CSI is irreducible complexity [certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved] (IC). ID researchers can then experimentally reverse-engineer biological structures to see if they are IC. If they find them, they can conclude design (p.1). Simply put, if intelligent design is tested and approved by the method that all other scientific theories are determined by, then ID is a legitimate scientific theory as plausible as evolution and should therefore be taught to students as well. According to a survey done byShow MoreRelatedEssay on job description5322 Words   |  22 Pages Any delay in converting to the new system would be costly to the customer. 2. The director of research in an aerospace firm promotes a woman to head an engineering team based upon her superior knowledge of the project. Quick completion of the design and building of prototypes is vital to the success of the company. The men under her direction are subtly sabotaging the team’s work due to their reluctance to work for a woman. 3. The vice-president of marketing for a major brewing company isRead MoreConstruction Project Management Department Of Civil And Building Engineering10281 Words   |  42 Pagesin London, UK and other parts of the world. Keeping in mind the end goal to guarantee dependability, the exploration goes for accomplishing legitimate input from existing employees and managers of the companies. Coalescing view from practice, legal theory and doctrinal analysis, this paper exhibits a comprehensive scrutiny of the challenges facing the contemporary understanding and future application of Companies Act, such as the optimal adjustment of standards in highly dynamic settings and the ambitRead MoreHsc Level 5 Unit 534 Essay14626 Words   |  59 Pagesand inspire others to achieve greater things. 1.3 Compare the difference in outcomes that may occur between focusing on an individual’s strengths and aspirations rather than their needs only.Strengths based practice is a social work pr actice theory that emphasizes peoples self determination and strengths. Strengths based practice is client led, with a focus on future outcomes and strengths that the people bring to a problem or crisis. A proto-theorist for this practice was social worker BerthaRead MoreInnovators Dna84615 Words   |  339 PagesArt of Innovation (both by Tom Kelley of IDEO), or A Whole New Mind (Daniel Pink). Finally, other books like Creativity in Context (Teresa Amabile) and Creativity (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi) examine individual creativity and, more speciï ¬ cally, theories and research about creativity. Our book differs from the others in that it is focused squarely on individual creativity in the business context and is based on our study of a large sample of business innovators, including some big-name innovatorsRead MoreMedicare Policy Analysis447966 Words   |  1792 Pagespurchasing, bundling of services, differential pay7 ment rates, performance or utilization based payments, 8 partial capitation, and direct contracting with providers. 9 (b) REQUIREMENTS FOR INNOVATIVE PAYMENTS.— 10 The Secretary shall design and implement the payment 11 mechanisms and policies under this section in a manner 12 that— 13 (1) seeks to— 14 (A) improve health outcomes; 15 (B) reduce health disparities (including ra- 16 cial, ethnic, and other disparities);

Sunday, 17 May 2020

House by Tracy Kidder, A Short Review of the Book

House by Tracy Kidder is the compelling true story of the construction of a home in Massachusetts. He takes his time with details, describing it all in over 300 pages—the evolution of the design, the negotiations with builders, the groundbreaking, and the roof raising. But, dont look to this book for floor plans or building instructions. Instead, author Tracy Kidder focuses on the human aspirations and struggles behind the project. Facts That Read Like Fiction Tracy Kidder is a journalist who is renown for his literary nonfiction. He reports on actual events and real people by creating a story for the reader. His books include the best-selling Soul of a New Machine, Home Town, Old Friends, and Among School Children. When Kidder worked on House, he immersed himself into the lives of the key players, listening to their squabbles and recording minute details of their lives. He is a reporter who tells us the story. The result is a non-fiction work that reads like a novel. As the tale unfolds, we meet the clients, the carpenters, and the architect. We eavesdrop on their conversations, learn about their families, and peek into their dreams and self-doubts. Personalities often clash. The complex dynamics are dramatized in five sections, spanning from the signing of the contract to the moving day and the uneasy final negotiations. If the story seems real, its because it is real life. Architecture as Drama House is about people, not floor plans. Tensions mount as contractor and client quibble over small sums. The architects search for an ideal design and the clients selection of decorative details take on a sense of rising urgency. As each scene unfolds, it becomes apparent that House is not only the story of a building: The construction project is the framework for exploring what happens when we put a running meter on a dream. Truth Behind the Story Although House reads like a novel, the book includes just enough technical information to satisfy a readers architectural curiosity. Tracy Kidder researched the economics of housing, the properties of lumber, the architectural styles of New England, Jewish building rituals, the sociology of building, and the development of architecture as a profession. Kidders discussion of the importance of Greek Revival styles in America could stand on its own as a classroom reference. Yet, as a testament to Kidders craftsmanship, the technical details do not bog down the plot of the story. History, sociology, science, and design theory are woven seamlessly into the narrative. A comprehensive bibliography closes the book. You can get a flavor for Kidders prose in a short excerpt published in The Atlantic, September 1985. Decades later, well after Kidders book and the house was built, the reader can continue the story, because, after all, this is nonfiction. Kidder already had a Pulitzer Prize under his belt when he took on this project. Fast forward to the homeowner, lawyer Jonathan Z. Souweine, who died of leukemia in 2009 at the young age of 61. The architect, Bill Rawn, went on to create an impressive portfolio for William Rawn Associates after this venture, his first residential commission. And the local building crew? They wrote their own book called The Apple Corps Guide to the Well-Built House. Good for them. The Bottom Line You wont find how-to instructions or construction manuals in House. This is the book to read for insight into the emotional and psychological challenges of building a home in 1980s New England. It is the story of well-educated, well-to-do people from a specific time and place. It will not be everyones story. If you are now in the midst of a building project, House may strike a painful chord. The financial woes, the strained tempers, and the deliberation over details will seem uncomfortably familiar. And, if you are dreaming of building a home or pursuing a career in the building professions, watch out: House will shatter any romantic illusions you may have. But while the book spoils the romance, it may save your marriage ... or at least, your pocketbook. Buy on Amazon Originally published by Houghton Mifflin, October 1985, House has become a staple at library book sales. Paperback by Mariner Books, 1999. ~Reviewed by Jackie Craven Related Books: The Apple Corps Guide to the Well-Built House by Jim Locke, 1988Buy on Amazon The Architecture of Happiness by Alain De Botton, 2008Buy on Amazon Outliers: The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell, 2008Buy on Amazon The Soul of a New Machine by Tracy Kidder, 1981, 2000Buy on Amazon

Wednesday, 13 May 2020

Essay about Theories that Explain Deviance - 930 Words

Deviance is a behavior, trait, belief, or other characteristic that violates a norm and causes a negative reaction in a group. The definition of deviance varies widely across cultures, time, and situations. Some of the different deviances that our culture encounters is: body modifications, being overweight, exc. I personal have experienced being treated as devein because since high school to now in collage I have had a mohawk off and on. This is nothing to extreme when talking about the world of deviance but none the less it is an experience that has changed my view on how people are judged. When sociologists use the word deviant, they are making a social judgment but never a moral judgment. If a particular behavior is considered†¦show more content†¦The Differential association theory states we learn to be deviant through our relations with deviant people. Labeling theory says that deviance is a consequence of outside decisions, or labels, which equally change the person’s self-concept and change the way others react to the labeled person. Labeling theory is also linked to the impression of the self-fulfilling prophecy, which usually is defined by a label that causes the situation to come true. All of these theories are quite interesting and point different views on deviance and can make you better understand people around you. Stigma is a term that Erving Goffman’s came up with and is defined as a mark of disgrace or infamy; a stain or reproach, as on ones reputation. We have all met or at least have seen someone with a stigma and have noticed that even if it is untrue it becomes true to that person. One strategy analyzed by Goffman that stigmatized individuals use to negotiate everyday interaction is called passing, or concealing the stigmatizing information. Many people have what Goffman called an in-group orientation, where the stigmatized people follow a direction away from mainstream society and towards a new standards that value their groups’ identity. Finally, others choose deviance avowal, a process by which an individual self-identifies as deviant and initiates his or her own labeling process. It is always a good thing to try to change the cultures point of view on stigmatized peopleShow MoreRelatedDeviance Theory Analysis Essay1564 Words   |  7 PagesDeviance Theory Analysis - Id entify Deviance for situations and explain Within any given society, individuals are expected to behave and or conduct themselves in a given acceptable manner. However, there are instances when particular individuals act contrary to the set standards and violate the cultural norms. Such acts may include acts of crime, theft, defiance, breaking of rules, and truancy just to mention a few. Deviance could thus be viewed as the intentional or accidental violation of theRead MoreWhat Deviance Is Today s Society Essay1081 Words   |  5 PagesWhat defines deviance in today’s society? Is it the abnormal things that people don’t usually do or is it just criminal behavior? Deviance has brought up many questions on what could be defined as it. Deviance is usually shaped by society. It can be defined as the violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law (OpenStax 142). Sociologist want to see why deviance has so many different areas and how it effects a group in a society. For exampleRead MoreWhat Deviance Is Socially Constructed Essay1339 Words   |  6 PagesQuestion 1 – Explain what deviance is socially constructed means. Discuss 2 types of positive deviance and 2 types of negative deviance which are socially constructed in the United States. Provide examples of each. Deviance is socially constructed because it is defined and outlined firmly by society’s norms. As a result, a deviant act in one society may not be considered deviant within a different society. Societies define themselves through the shared common values of the individuals and in orderRead MoreWhat Deviance Is Wrong?1654 Words   |  7 Pageswhat deviance was. I am half way through undergrad and criminology and sociology are my majors for crying out loud I should know what deviance is. But could I be anymore wrong. My definition at the beginning of the course was someone who goes against your typical norms. They don’t stick to the status quo. A deviant person relates to criminals who openly break laws, and those who break social norms such as not getting married. Now that we are in the final week of class my definition of deviance hasRead MoreThe Deviance Behind Drunk Driving Essay1442 Words   |  6 PagesThe Deviance behind Drunk Driving Many individuals in today’s society wonder what pushes people past a breaking point in which they become involved in actions not accepted by society, such as stripping, prostitution, drug use, alcoholism and more. The reasoning behind this is deviance. Deviance can be either positive (over conforming) or negative (under conforming). When applying the subject of crime to a type of deviance, it falls under the negative category because those who under conform in societyRead MoreDifferential Association Theory Essay1671 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will discuss three theories, the differential association theory, the labelling theory and the rationale choice theory. The theories will discussed and how they can explain crime will also be discussed, and then a comparison of the theories will be given in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses in explaining youth crime. Theories within criminology try to explain why and how crime occurs. This is done through examining v arious facts that are related to the individual s criminalRead More Social Norms1709 Words   |  7 PagesDeviance is a title that insinuates the violation of social norms in society. This can be described as adjacent to criminal and improper behaviour imposed by the people who break the social norms of a society. Thus, becoming subjective to a label of deviant. Deviants often have punishment bestowed upon them by authoritive figures such as the enforcers of law. There are many universal types of deviance throughout societys over the world such as alcoholism, addiction, mental illness and homosexualityRead MoreYouth Deviance Essay1376 Words   |  6 PagesDeviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. This is an extremely broad definition, and depending on who is explaining it, the above definition can mean a variety of different things. Critically examine the theory of deviance with reference to young people and their membership in deviant subcultures or gang s. Deviance is associated with young people today and is rapidly on the increase within the street and school environment. Young deviants are engaging in gang membershipRead MoreSexual Deviance Is Any Abnormal Sexual Act997 Words   |  4 PagesSexual deviance is any abnormal sexual act, behavior, or fantasy that falls outside of the social norm; however, who determines normal and for how long does that normal apply? Historically, intercourse described penile/vaginal penetration in the â€Å"missionary position† of a man and woman in marriage and was needed for procreation; incidentally, public discussion, display, or exposure met with disgust, disapproval, and rejection. The norm predominantly established through religion rallied againstRead MoreCrime And Deviance1550 Words   |  7 Pagesstudying crimes and deviance, sociologists look to explain what types of behavior are defined as deviant as opposed to criminal, who defines deviant behaviors, why people become deviant, an d how society deals with deviant behavior. Deviance is defined by sociologists are behavior that significantly goes against expected rules and norms. Criminal behavior is behavior that violates the law. Sociology studies groups as opposed to individuals, so when studying crime and deviance, sociologists are looking

Wednesday, 6 May 2020

Obesity The Body Mass Index Essay - 1699 Words

Introduction Obesity can be defined as an abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells, mainly in the viscera and subcutaneous tissues of the body (Mosby, 2010). The official medical measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), an index of an individual’s weight relative to height. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines obesity as having a BMI greater than or equal to 30 (World Health Organisation, 2015). New Zealand (NZ) ranks 3rd highest for obesity rates amongst OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries with 1 in 9 children classified as obese (Statistics New Zealand, 2015). The rate of childhood obesity in NZ has increased from 8% in 2006/7 to 11% in 2014/15 (Ministry of Health, 2015). Obesity is of particular concern amongst children due to the association with a wide range of health conditions and an increased risk of early onset illness. Obese children are more likely to be obese adults and have impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension a t a younger age. Obesity in children is also associated with asthma and musculoskeletal problems as well as mental health problems due to low self-esteem and depression (Ministry of Health, 2015). This essay will discuss the environmental factors that aid the prevalence of this health issue. Also, discussion will be had about the environmental worldview that is reflected by this situation. Lastly, the role of government laws and policies in the management of this issue will be analysed.Show MoreRelatedObesity And The Body Mass Index1404 Words   |  6 PagesToday I am discuss about one of the major health problem obesity. According to Wlardlow (2000), obesity is defined as a condition characterized by excess body fat. Health reduces and it creates some big and little bit small problems related to the body of the certain people who has this kind of problem. It extends many negative effects on people’s health and reduces the life expectancy people are considered obese when their body mass index is a measurement obtained by dividing individual s weightRead MoreObesity As A Body Mass Index1606 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION: Background Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≠¥30 kg/m2. It is a rising epidemic due to many factors including genetics, lifestyle and other hormonal/medical issues. According to the World Health Organization, worldwide there are about 500 million obese adults and 42 million obese children. In the United States, 35 percent of adults (roughly 100 million people) and 17 percent of children are obese. Obesity is linked to many complications, including hypertension, dyslipidemiaRead MoreObesity As A Body Mass Index ( Bmi )1458 Words   |  6 Pagesoverweight and obesity is caused when an energy imbalance between energy consumed and calories expanded takes place. The cause for this energy imbalance is often complex, resulting from the multifactorial interactions between genetics, overeating, slow metabolism, medications, and physiological factors. Obesity can be measured in several ways; the most widely used technique is BMI. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of size based on a person’s mass and height (NHLBI, 2015). Obesity is defined asRead MoreObesity Is Defined As A Body Mass Index2779 Words   |  12 PagesIntroduction a. The prevalence of obesity in the United States has doubled over the last two decades (Pomerantz et al, 2010) and tripled over the last three decades (Taylor et al, 2006); similar trends are also occurring worldwide (Sabharwal and Root, 2012). i. In children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific CDC BMI-for-age growth charts (Ogden et al, 2012). 1. Severe obesity is defined as a BMI at or aboveRead MoreChildhood Obesity Is Defined As A Body Mass Index924 Words   |  4 PagesOF THE TOPIC According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009), Childhood Obesity is defined as a Body Mass Index at or above 95th percentile for both male and female children in the United States. Approximately 9 million children are struggling with Obesity (Gootman, J.A., McGinnis, M., Kraak, V.I., 2006). The rate at which children are being diagnosed with obesity has more than doubled over a span of 25 years form 7% to 18% for children ranging in age from 6-11 yearsRead MoreObesity : An Individual s Body Mass Index1418 Words   |  6 Pages Measures Obesity is determined by an individual’s Body Mass Index (BMI). According to the CDC, â€Å"an adult who have an index mass of 30 and over, is considered obese†. Body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m) 2), is used to calculate the height and weight to determine if the individual is obese. Poverty is defined â€Å"the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions† (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2014). Since the majority of Austin is poverty stricken,Read MoreChildhood Obesity : A Child s Body Mass Index1701 Words   |  7 PagesChildhood Obesity is usually measure by a child’s body mass index. This tells where a child lands on the health scale. At the same time, a child’s body mass index doesn’t give the final and complete picture about that child. In order to create an effective action plan to combat this public health issue, it is imperative that it is understood that children are very unique. Children are a lot like snowflakes; each one has different and unique characteristics to them. How a child grows is usually differentRead MoreObesity : The Major Health Problems Worldwide1211 Words   |  5 PagesObesity is one of the major health problems worldwide. The World Health Organization estima ted that over 1.4 billion people around the world diagnosed with overweight and obesity in 2008 (Haberka, Stolarz-Skrzpek, Cazrnecka, Gasior, Olszanecka-Glinianowicz. 2014. P,1). At all ages and throughout the world, women are generally found to have higher rate of obesity than men. The method that used to measure the obesity is the body mass index. The body mass index is the weight divided by height squaredRead MoreObesity Epidemic in America1748 Words   |  7 Pagesthe fattest country in the world. Obesity in America has reach epidemic proportions. Obesity and weight gain has become major concern of public health in the United States. In every state, at least twenty percent of adults are obese, and in twelve of these states the obesity rate is above thirty percent. Mississippi currently holds the highest rate of obesity with 34.9 percent of its residents being obese. On the contrary, Colorado has the lowest rate of obesity with 20.7 percent. CNN estimated thatRead MoreChildhood Obesity And Its Effect On Children s Wellbeing And Health999 Words   |  4 PagesChildhood obesity is described as a condition whereby excessive body fat interferes or affects child’s wellbeing and health. The condition is often diagnosed based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) since it is considerably difficult to determine the body fat directly. This condition is now recognized as a serious issue requiring public health concern owing to the increased of its prevalence among the children. To avoid stigmatization, overweight is often used in children rather than obese (Ogden, 2014)

Two Articles Free Essays

Assignment 2: LASA 1—Analytical Summaries For this assignment, you will compose two short critical essays explaining and evaluating arguments by other authors. This assignment allows you to analyze an issue from a variety of perspectives and assess arguments for or against the issue. By focusing your attention on how the original authors use evidence and reasoning to construct and support their positions, you can recognize the value of critical thinking in public discourse. We will write a custom essay sample on Two Articles or any similar topic only for you Order Now Read the two articles â€Å"Predictive Probes†, and â€Å"New Test Tells Whom a Crippling Disease Will Hit—and When† from the textbook and write two separate analytical summaries. These articles can be found in the chapter titled: Deciding to accept an argument: Compare the evidence. This assignment has two parts. Part 1—First Article Write an analytical summary of the article focusing on the article’s main claims. Include the following: †¢Identify the three ways the author uses evidence to support assertions. †¢Identify the places where evidence is employed as well as how the author uses this evidence. Discuss evidence â€Å"as the reason† vs. â€Å"the support for the reason. † Also discuss evidence as dependent on the issue/context. †¢Analyze how the author signals this usage through elements such as word choices, transitions, or logical connections. Part 2—Second Article Write an analytical summary of the article focusing on the article’s main claims. Include the following: †¢Identify the author’s use of the three elements: experiment, correlation, and speculation to support assertions. †¢Analyze how the author signals the use of these elements through language. For example, word choices, transitions, or logical connections. Write a 4–5-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M3_A2. doc. 1. What kind of evidence would you expect in the following arguments? †¢a. An argument that people who eat a special diet will have less chance of getting cancer. †¢b. An argument that God exists. †¢c. An argument that human cells secrete some substance under certain conditions. †¢d. An argument that stealing is unethical. †¢e. An argument that owning a pet tends to lower one’s blood pressure. Answers (a) evidence after the fact; (b) philosophical evidence (a general principle, for instance that the universe is orderly); (c) direct scientific experimentation; (d) philosophical evidence; (e) evidence after the fact 2. Underline the language in the following argument that you believe indicates that it does (or does not) admit its limits. It’s an obvious fact that living in the suburbs is better than city life. Everyone knows that cities are far more polluted and dangerous. And of course, people don’t even know their neighbors. On the other hand, suburbs are peaceful havens from the workaday world. READINGS The following two articles show breathtaking advances in the ability to detect whether a person will suffer from a particular genetic disease. The first article contains references to all three types of evidence discussed in this chapter. Compare the language used to depict direct experimentation, after-the-fact evidence, and values questions. Predictive probes by Jerry E. Bishop Several years ago, Nancy Wexler’s mother died of Huntington’s disease, a hereditary and always-fatal affliction that strikes in midlife. Since then, Ms. Wexler, the 38-year-old president of the Hereditary Diseases Foundation in Santa Monica, Calif. , has lived with the uncertainty of whether she, too, inherited the deadly gene. That uncertainty may soon be resolved. A few months ago, scientists announced they were on the verge of completing a new test to detect the gene for Huntington’s disease (formerly called Huntington’s chorea). But deciding whether to submit herself to the test is an anguishing choice for Ms. Wexler. â€Å"If I came out lucky, taking the test would be terrific, of course,† she says. But if I came out unlucky, well †¦Ã¢â‚¬  Her dilemma is an extreme example of the kind thousands of Americans will face in the not-too-distant future as scientists learn how to pinpoint genes that cause or predispose a person to a future illness. The test to detect the Huntington’s disease gene should be ready within one to two years. Researchers already have detected some of the gene s that can lead to premature heart attacks and, in the near future, hope to spot those that could predispose a person to breast or colon cancer. Eventually, scientists believe they will be able to detect genes leading to diabetes, depression, schizophrenia and the premature senility called Alzheimer’s disease. New Test Tells Whom a Crippling Disease Will Hit—and When Amy Jo Snider, a college senior, has put her career plans and romantic life on hold until she settles a gnawing question about her genetic legacy. During her Christmas break, the Charleston, SC, student plans to be tested for a gene that causes ataxia, a disease without a cure that destroys the brain cells governing muscle control. The disorder crippled and ultimately killed her father in middle age. Because of a recent breakthrough in genetic research, the 21-year-old Miss Snider will be able to find out whether she inherited the disease, and, if so, how soon and how hard ataxia may strike her. â€Å"I want to be tested before I start to show symptoms,† she says unflinchingly. â€Å"I’m graduating in May, and I have to start planning my life. † As agonizing as the knowledge might be, she says the uncertainty is worse. â€Å"If I’m in limbo, it’s not fair to people around me,† she says. â€Å"I can’t deal with not knowing. † How to cite Two Articles, Essay examples

Impact of New Technology Essay Sample free essay sample

Today. engineering possesses a important consequence in the design and selling procedure of consumer merchandises. particularly electronics. As new innovations discovered. electronic merchandises have besides grown in maps and forms. Recognized or non. these new innovations by and large led the manner to new tendencies and cravings within the society of consumers. The alteration from one technological tendency to another is a procedure affecting assorted technological every bit good as cultural factors. In this paper. I will seek to place some of them utilizing the latest tendency of portable sound participants. This paper will lucubrate the history of audio participants. how the ‘turn’ to portable sound participants occurred and what factors were involved within them. The first sound participants were immense valve-based devices. It was both big and heavy. Automatically the lone manner we can listen to music is by being restricted to our life suites. However. sometime in the 60’s. the transistor was discovered. Shortly after. people can listen to the wireless without being ‘tied down’ within their suites. The really fist portable sound participant was really the 8 path participant. It has considerable success. but received heavy critics every bit good because of its majority and incommodiousness. It could merely play 8 path tapes. therefore. most tapes must be separated into two or sometimes three parts ( ‘Portable Music Player’ . 2006 ) . The nest coevals of portable sound participant was the cassette participant. In July 1979. Sony released the first Walkman. the Sony TPS-LS2. It was a little device powered by a 4 AA battery which allow people to listen to cassettes through earphones. The public reaction was unbelievable. By 1982. the new tendency has set a record on compact cassettes gross revenues figure and the Walkman itself ( ‘Portable Music Player’ . 2006 ) . After the Walkman. the following coevals of tendency in portable sound participant was the Discman or the CD-player. Many believed that the death of Walkman was the work of Sony itself when the company introduced the D-50. a portable sound participant that can play music directly from a compact phonograph record. For rather some clip. the Cadmium participant was the dominant portable music participant. Afterwards. mini phonograph record participants. brassy memory participants and audio participants with an internal memory threatened to replace the Cadmium participants. nevertheless. the Cadmium participant survive because it now reads mp3 CD’s ( ‘Portable Music Player’ . 2006 ) . The last coevals of portable sound participants is the Digital Audio Player ( DAP ) . The first DAP was criticized for several issues. First. the MP3 files by and large do no hold better sound quality. Peoples besides found it troublesome in reassigning files. despite utilizing transportation plans. The issue was so solved as new versions of iTunes became simpler to cover with. Today. the DAP consist of three devices: ( ‘Portable Music Player’ . 2006 ) The alteration from one engineering of digital participant to another was non every bit simple as it seems. As mentioned in the debut. it involves assorted factors whether they are proficient or cultural in nature. In 2004. the market value of portable sound participants in United Kingdom entirely was valued at some ? 473. 6 million. This was a 15 % addition since 2000. It was besides forecasted that the market for all portable digital participants will make a 37 % compound one-year growing rate from 2002 to 2007. During that period. entire portable unit cargos are expected to mount from 6. 8 million units to 36 million units. Many indicated that the rise was due to the increasing popularity of digital music participants. Some of those factors act uponing the development of the tendency will be elaborated in the undermentioned bomber chapters ( Bell. 2003 ) . 3. 1 The function of Marketing Sellers frequently stated that what they do is following bing tendency. But in fact. we frequently see that it is the sellers that shaped the tendencies as they please. Today. tendency is really much influenced by what we see in Television. newspapers and hoardings. by what we hear from our friends and households. etc. Those are all the work of selling experts. Long have they discovered that tendency are ‘made’ and non ‘born’ . The debut of Walkman for illustration. requires intensive promotional activities from manufacturers. In order to advance the Walkman. Sony. needed a powerful ad visible radiation striking publicity run. Directors of the company have had hard times converting people of the value of the bran-new merchandise. In Japan. creative person. Television and film stars received free samples. This was considered a good thought because fans have a inclination of following behaviours of their graven images. Soon. the gross revenues records went sky high during the first hebdomad of its release in Japan ( Bartlett. 2001 ) . Sony applied different selling schemes for different markets. In the United States. ‘sore shoulder. no more’ was a portion of a widespread selling run of the Walkman. This is due to the old tendency of American youth transporting big boombox on their shoulders. The first hebdomad gross revenues figure in America was recorded 16 billion units ( Bartlett. 2001 ) . 3. 2 Technical and Price Competition Beside marketing facets. many considered that the tendency toward portable sound participants is besides influenced by the proficient considerations. Consumers prefer appliances with more maps and characteristics. The rise of the portable sound participants mentioned antecedently was besides the consequence of higher capacity storage. increased participant options. add-on of real-time encryption. As more companies enter the competitory market. audiophiles can please in a enormous choice of options. sizes. forms and colourss. Different companies offer different characteristics to heighten their competitory advantages. Some offers hard drives that shop the music internally. while other offers interchangeable storage media. It is the consumers who so choose characteristics harmonizing to their personal demands. Considerations like. size versus storage infinite. compact or full size earphones and which sounds the best are powerful factors that influence purchase behaviours ( Bell. 2003 ) . Another dominant factor is monetary value. Since the first designs of portable sound participants. companies have been aiming the young person market in their selling run. This is one ground why cheaper monetary values could significantly heighten gross revenues figure in portable sound participants. More cheap semiconducting material constituents allow manufacturers of portable sound participants to diminish the cost of the merchandises. Even the larger capacity of hard-disk based portables is now sing diminishing monetary values ( Bell. 2003 ) . Both the monetary value decreases and a larger assortment of HDD-based devices along with consumers’ involvement in utilizing the devices to hive away picture and even informations will lend significantly to the growing of the portable audio player’s market. From these factors. every bit good we can place which merchandise will be the following large tendency among consumers ( Bell. 2003 ) . 3. 3 Technological/Cultural Mass Adoption on Portable Audio Player 3. 3. 1 Technological Tendencies of Portable Audio Players Technological tendencies are one of the most powerful phenomena that influence the way of an economic system. The phenomena would impact societies from non merely economic position but besides from societal. legal. and other related positions. It is interesting to see there are many appliances that entertain and help us to execute several activities in much easier ways. In 80’s we experience the new epoch in basking music through the innovation of Walkman. a simple. visible radiation and hence portable appliance. Since so we witness that portability becomes issue in developing new merchandises. ensuing in appliances like Discman. Game Watch. Wristwatch. and Sony’s PlayStation Portable ( PSP ) with internet entree embedded on it. to call a few. Therefore. the technological tendencies of electronic appliances are portability. Harmonizing to talk portables ( 2006 ) . portability becomes keywords to win in this fast-moving concern. About. com in his article reveals that Nintendo sold more than 21 million DS units since its debut in November 2004. The state of affairs besides occurs at other portable media like pocket Personal computer that enable users to take a note. browse cyberspace. and listen to music as if they use desktop computing machines at place. 3. 3. 2 Cultural Tendencies of Portable Audio Players Sony’ Walkman. which was popular several decennaries ago. was one illustration of how portable appliances become sidesplitting characteristic for electronic media. However. the success of electronic media does non simply depend on the advanced engineering that a appliance airss but besides cultural consideration. Take for illustration is the narrative behind the innovation of Walkman. a hand-held musical device. a few decennaries ago. At that clip. in 1979. research section suggested that handheld music appliances are no manner to do net income for Sony since harmonizing to quantitative research they conduct the collected information from samples showed that there are no people are likely to bask music while walking or running. This state of affairs shows that over trusting on quantitative informations might ensue in misjudge and chance loss to bring forth a salable merchandise like Walkman. In instance of Sony. although the quantitative analysis shows Walkman is non salable. nevertheless. clever foresight and vision of Sony Founder and Chief Advisor. Masaru Ibuka and Sony Founder and Honorary Chairman Akio Morita have promoted the production of the Walkman and flooded the market with it. The determination was made since he saw that many African American people bring music participants anyplace and he believed that portability becomes killing characteristic of future electronic media. It turn out. as we know. that handheld devices like Walkman. Discman and many others are salable in the yesteryear. in present. and in the hereafter. 3. 3. 2 iPod Craze One thing digital engineering favours computing machine industry is that any concern that employs computing machine hardware could be considered as parts of computing machine industry. The issue of Napster’s expiration due to illegal action had unfastened new chance for legal music download industry although late we can still download military policeman. 3-based music through P2P ( peer-to-peer ) method of file sharing. Refering the issue. Apple Computer creates new scheme by developing new killing appliances when the company invents and massively produces iPod. a digital music participant that supports legal download for 99 cents per path ( Figure 1 ) . This scheme highlights the Apple’s purpose to govern out computer-related industry. Figure 1 iPod Nano Beginning: World Wide Web. ipoditude. com The obvious success of iPod has put Apple Computer as a serious rival to Sony and Microsoft. In order to stay in the computing machine industry. Apple get their loyal client by making merchandises that have great characteristics. such as executing good design. user-friendliness. smart selling. and cagey publicity. The characteristics include individualized web logs. iTunes. and many others ( Figure 2 ) . The debut of iPod is widely accepted by consumers as by June 2005. Fortune Magazine stated that Apple has sold non less than 15 million iPods. In September 2005. the 5th coevals iPods are able to play picture every bit good as music. Some called this new design a picture iPod ( iPod. 2005 ) . Figure 2 Features of iPod that better relationship with clients. Beginning: World Wide Web. apple. com 3. 3. 2. 1 iPod and Personalized Blos Blog is one illustration of how engineering helps a individual to portion thoughts in the Internet at no costs. It is precisely similar to compose on a column in a magazine or newspaper where people can besides portion thoughts on peculiar topics. By definition. the definition of a web log or Web Log is a â€Å"Web page that serves as a publically accessible personal diary for an individual† ( â€Å"Blog† ) . This web page is typically updated day-to-day and reflects the personality of the writer. A web log is slightly similar to a public diary maintaining that grows up to be an of import point in back uping a company’s online concern since it is more effectual than on-line advertisement or selling. For cases. Tom Wark. proprietor of a wine industry public dealingss house. Wark Communications. has a web log that display his remarks refering assorted issues on wine-related industry ( Richmond ) . He believe that web log supply his company a great benefit since the figure of traffic into his company’s web site becomes two crease. However. the usage of a web log will non straight lead to more money since people or readers do non pay for seeing a web log. However. the proprietor of a company who use a web log might utilize a selling scheme to do a web log going a tool for enticing consumers to purchase merchandises or services the proprietor has. Therefore. the proprietor has chance to make a monolithic clients database. Refering the potency of a web log. Apple besides equips their iPod with the capableness to blogging. IPoditude. com becomes the Web’s Prime Minister iPod web log that enables users to run down newsworthy in the universe of iPod and reaches a targeted audience. In add-on. iPoditude. com readers are those who hungry for updated intelligence. info sharing. and passion. Presently. iPoditude links many site such as Gizmodo. iPodlounge. Planet iPod ( featured provender ) and many others. Figure 3 Official Apple Website that enriched with iPod’s characteristics 3. 3. 2. 2 iPod and Challenge in Musical Industry The innovation of iPod earnestly challenge the traditional Cadmiums and VCDs since now client can download music both legal and illegal since the format of digital music is now available in many signifiers and do people easy to download them. In add-on. the being of iPod besides gives challenges to music industry since the individualized choice of vocals may set album in the weak place. This is because as music lovers. we prefer to choose some pieces of vocals from different vocalists and set them in the same booklet since we might non like all the vocals in one album from a peculiar vocalist. Therefore. the being of iPod becomes serious challenges for musical industry and helps consumers to bask music much better since consumers who express their thoughts in World Wide Web. wired. com feel they are ill of high album monetary values and limited handiness. Meanwhile. the iPod and its characteristic. iTunes. enable consumers to download peculiar vocals and portion it with their friends at no costs. Bibliography ‘Apple’s Strategy’ . 2004. Retrieved August 16. 2006 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. it-analysis. com/article. php? articleid=12794 Bartlett. Michael. 2001. ‘CES: overplus of Portable Audio Player- Industry Trend or Event’ . Newsbytes News Network Bell. Ian. 2003. ‘The market for digital sound participants should stay robust over the following five old ages. driven largely by gross revenues of hard-disk drive-based portables and combination CD/MP3 players’ . Digital Trends [ on-line ] . Retrieved November 20. 2006 Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //news. digitaltrends. com/article235. hypertext markup language iPoditude. 2006. ‘Advertise with iPoditude. com’ . Retrieved November 27. 2006 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ipoditude. com/ads. php ‘Portable Music Player’ [ online ] . 2006. Retrieved November 20. 2006 available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. kuleuven. be/iccp/iccp03/history. htm Richmond. Riva. ‘Blogs Keep Internet Customers Coming Back’ .Wall Street Journal

Tuesday, 5 May 2020

Kfc Vietnam free essay sample

Company Profile and History Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), founded by Colonel Harland Sanders in 1930, has developed to become one of the largest fast-food chicken operator and franchiser round the world with more than a billion finger lickin good. In 1966, it went public and was acquired by PepsiCo, Inc. In 1997, PepsiCo spun-off of its quick service restaurants including KFC into an independent restaurant company, Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc (KFC Vietnam 2008). The company now was known as Yum! Brands Inc which included all the restaurants: AW Restaurants, Long John Silvers, Pizza Hut and Taco Bell. KFC has more than 11,000 restaurants operating in more than 80 countries and territories in the world. Today it is one of the most famous and strongest brand names in the fast food market (Entrepreneur Media 2009). In 1997, KFC restaurants opened its first outlet in Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam. Today, due to the trend of the busy life style and the increase in earnings of people in big cities like Ho Chi Minh City, KFC Vietnam franchise expanded its network so far to 75 restaurants with 47 outlets in Ho Chi Minh City, 15 outlets in Hanoi and others in many Vietnamese provinces (KFC Viet Nam 2008). Company officials considered Vietnam as a potential growth market in fast food industry. KFCs goal is to secure its position as a market leader and increase the market share in Vietnam. 2. Current Market Situation This section presents relevant background data on the current Vietnamese macro- environment. Political Factors After the Join of Vietnam to the WTO, Vietnams new commercial franchising law provided for a legal regulatory climate conductive to the franchising sector. The government policy encouraged the opening up of foreign franchises which are expected to grow. With an annual growth of 30 percent in recent years, franchising showed great potential as a form of business in Vietnam (U. S Commercial Service 2009a). The stability and safety in politic environment was the key success for KFC Vietnam to grow expands its business and become the market leader in Vietnams fast food industry. Economic Factors In recent years, Vietnams economic growth rate has annually increased at 7 to 8. 5 percent and has been one of the highest in the world. With the estimated increase in GDP 6. 5 percents in 2009, Vietnam is considered to be a true emerging market for U. S investors. In respond to face the high inflation rate, Vietnamese government implemented a monetary tighten measures to stabilize the Vietnamese Dong, cutting government expenditures in order to slow inflation (U. S Commercial Service 2009a). According to the market research company Nielsen estimated the fast food industry in Vietnam could grow by 40 percents and generate VND500 billion (Tuoi Tre 2009). With advantages on economic environment, KFC Vietnam has many opportunities to develop its market share, increase profits and expand number of restaurants to 80 (ITPC 2008). ocio-cultural Factors Due to the rise of fast food in Vietnam and the change in eating habits of Vietnamese people, they were busier than ever before so they tended to eat fast food more often than traditional meals (Vietnamnet Bridge 2008). KFC always concerned about the ocial, cultural and ethical values of local community. Its restaurants had done product adaptation in order to suit local tastes, cultures and religion in Vietnam. This gave KFC an opportunity to grow and increase profits in Vietnamese market. Technology Factors KFC always support the work of research development in order to introduce the new technology. It used latest technology on machines and boilers with technical checkup and maintenance every six months. It made the cooking become faster to order and reduced the serving time. KFC Vietnam also use online website to provide ustomers another tool for ordering via phone. In the future, customers may also purchase KFC products and perform online transactions (KFC Vietnam 2008). 2. 2 Porters Five Forces Threat of new entrants (Strong) Recently, Vietnamese government has applied Commercial Law that encourages furniture etc. are not very high. Because the awareness of American franchise businesses is strong, many Vietnamese businesses interested in taking possession to operate American franchises (U. S Commercial Service 2009b). The Americans potential new entrants could enter Vietnamese market are McDonalds, Carls Jr, Burger King, Taco Bell, Subway and etc. Bargaining power of suppliers (Moderate) The suppliers in Vietnam had moderate bargaining power. KFC Vietnam took the supply of fresh and quality chicken meat from Thai-invested CP Viet Nam Livestock Company and Long Binh which is a Joint venture with France (CARD 2004). KFC started helping local suppliers with technological support to improve their product. The strong relations between KFC and local suppliers lowered supplier bargaining power. Bargaining power of buyers (Moderate) The bargaining power of buyers in Vietnam is moderate and they have varying egree. Individual buyers are less powerful because they purchase in small items. A buyer for occasion such as birthday party is stronger with the demand for more service and additional promotion like invitation card and discount price. Threat of substitute (Strong) Substitute competitors of KFC are all small restaurants that offer food service. The threat is strong with the variety in kinds and traditional Vietnamese taste such as Pho Hoa or Com Tam Moc. KFC needs to lower this threat by enhancing its promotion in order to popularize products so that the consumer will purchase KFC rather than ther substitute products. Competitive Rivalry (Moderate) Threat of direct competitors is moderate because KFC is the market leader in Vietnam with 75 restaurants. There are two main competitors: Lotteria and Jollibee (KFC Vietnam 2008). The threat may rise in 2010 because Lotteria will increase their restaurants to 80 outlets. Regarding to this competition, KFC also plans to growth total restaurant to 100 units and recently enhances their service by cutting short its delivery time to less than 30 minutes (Look At Vietnam 2008). 2. 3 Competitor Analysis Direct competitors: Lotteria and Jollibee Indirect competitors: Pizza Inn, Kinh Do Bakery, Duc Phat Bakery, Tour Les Jour. 2. 4 Market Segmentation According to Kotler et al (2005), there are four variables which can be used to segment the consumer market.