Wednesday, 5 June 2019

Barriers to the HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening for BAME Women

Barriers to the HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening for BAME WomenWhat atomic number 18 the Barriers of piece Papillomavirus (HPV)Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening amongst Minority Women age 12-26?AbstractBackground Minority women systematically experience socio-economic disadvantages, which put them in the face of greater obstacles in attaining optimal health. Approximately 44 million women in the linked States, nearly one third of all women in America, self-identify as women of a nonage racial or heathen group. Yet, nonage women f ar worse than non-Hispanic white women across a broad range of measures, with some of the largest disparities being that of HPV-related cervical crabmeat mortality. Objective The objective is to emphasize the barriers of care in relation to cervical cancer screening and HPV inoculation, as well as examine patterns in barriers bid demographic, cultural, and health belief factors amongst minority women.Methods The data collection rev iew and process was based on article review factors that were associated with HPV vaccinum acceptability, initiation, and series finale among teen and young adult women of different racial, ethnical, and socioeconomic groups in the United States. Results Selected characteristics of the included studies con played that an estimated 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer annually in the United States, and 4500,000 women worldwide formulate cervical cancer each year. Higher rates of cervical cancer are found in US regions with large minority and impoverished populations. death It is imperative for clinicians to progress minority women screening and early detection. Further intervention models need to reflect multifactorial determinants of screening utilization.IntroductionBackgroundWhile thither strike been strides in HPV and cervical cancer prevention efforts, many minority women across the board still experience square barriers to care. For example, women from rural a nd poor communities tend to have health illiteracy in regard to their own self-care, which also includes their mistrust for the healthcare system. Additionally, many minority women simply lack financial get to to care. Socio-economic disadvantages (i.e. race, class, gender, education, occupation, etc.) are the underlying issues. Though many health efforts are made by health professionals, and health ramifications like informative technologies and preventative care strategies have been achieved, there is a continual socio-economic and racial imbalance with both the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer, especially the strains directly influenced by HPV. Specific AimsOur specific aims are to first identify Healthcare barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening and HPV inoculationwithin the population of minority women. We also want to uncover minoritywomen, health care provider & health care system attempt factors for cervicalcancer screening & HPV vaccination, as well as, health care challenges and opportunities in improving cervical cancerscreening rates amongst minority women. Lastly, we want to pinpoint the nurses roles in preventing cervical cancer inunderserved racial and or ethnic populations.MethodsSearch StrategyIn June 2017,we searchedfour electronic bibliographic databases (Google scholar, Medline, Pubmed and Cinahl) using the search terms HPV cervicalcancer pap smear minority women ethnic women and health disparities. Allof the studies identified during the database search were assessed forrelevance to the review based on the culture provided in the title,abstract, and description of key words and terms. A effective report was retrievedfor all studies that met the inclusion criteria.Inclusion Criteria The data collection review and process wasbased on article review factors that were associated with HPV vaccineacceptability, initiation, and series completion among adolescent and youngadult women of different racial, ethnic, and soci oeconomic groups in the UnitedStates.We reviewed relevant peer-reviewed andevidence-based soft literature in order to identify current vaccination trends,rates and factors associated with HPV and cervical cancer. Study findings a related to race (black, Latina,Asian), andsocio-economic disadvantages were summarized.Eligibility CriteriaUnderstanding current vaccination trends andthe barriers to series initiation and completion, the Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC)recommends that 11 to 12 year old adolescents receive two doses of the HPVvaccine in order to protect against themselves against cancers that are causedby HPV. The HPV vaccine series can be given to girlsbeginning at age 9 years old, but many parents believe this age is too immaturefor a sexually inherited disease vaccination. Additionally, it is recommendedby the CDC that girls and women age 13 through 26 years of age who have not yetbeen vaccinated or completed the vaccine series to be given the HPV vaccin ationimmediately to provide HPV-cancer related protection. In understanding HPV vaccination parameters, itis essential that we too recognize gaps in intimacy and all the misconceptionssurrounding HPV vaccination and cervical cancer. Whenthe vaccine is given prior to HPV exposure, it is highly effective inpreventing infection from two high-risk genotypes (HPV-16/HPV-18) of HPV, whichcauses approximately 70 percent of cervical cancers, and two low-risk(HPV-6/HPV-11) genotypes that are responsible for over 90 percent of allgenital warts.Aswe assessed the appropriateness of our criteria interests, we focused on scandalous/African-American, Latina and non-whiteadolescent women age 12-26, minorityteen women reported having sexual intercourse, adolescent women who havecompleted puberty, and low income and health care illiterate young women, whoare too uninsured or have limited access. Quality AssessmentThe methodological prize is significant to ourstudy. It was organized and detailed or iented. It presented evidence that thereis a need for increasing HPVvaccination among young minority women. The failure to achieve equitablevaccination has exacerbated health disparities in HPV and cervical cancerincidence and mortality. research suggests that low- income and minority womenare disadvantaged due to the difference in cervical cancer screening, practicesand beliefs, as well as healthcare access barriers and systemic risk factors. We used the Researchand Quality Scoring Method by Sackett and Haynes, the Jadad scale, and theitems published by Cho and Bero to rate the character reference of each study (Table 1).The range of total quality scores was from 0 to 9. Studies that ranged from 0 to5 were considered low quality, whereas studies that ranged from 6-9 wereconsidered high quality. Two raters independently coded variables usingMicrosoft Excel. Discrepancies were identified and resolved amongst our teammembers. Table 1. Study quality ratings Statistical AnalysisRace/ ethnicity and low socio-economic statusare known predictors of late-stage diagnosis of cervical cancer and areimportant predictors of cancer mortality.In theUnited States, approximately 12,000 women develop cervical cancer and 44000die of the disease each year, with higher incidence and mortality ratesreported in low-income minority populations. HPVvaccination has been shown to reduce the prevalence of high-risk HPV infectionamong teen women and thus, has the potential to decrease the risks of cervicalcancer among vaccinated young women. Accordingto preceding surveillance and qualitative studies, it is indicated that adecline in the annual rate of high-grade cervical cancer, from 834 per 100,000in 2008 to 688 per 100,000 in 2014, among women aged 21 to 24 years, which reflects the impact of HPV vaccination. However,declines were not significant in areas with high proportions of minoritywomen (i.e blacks, Latinas) and/or people living in low-income areas.ResultsIncluded StudiesThe se arch yielded nearly 500 potential article titles for review, yet little than 70 were relevant to our interests. And of that 70, about 20 were dated within the last 10 years. Accordingly, less than 20 seemed more characteristic of our research interests and provided adequate information to our research question. Description of StudiesSelectedcharacteristics of the included studies contended that an estimated 12,000 women are diagnosed withcervical cancer annually in the United States, and 4500,000 women worldwidedevelop cervical cancer each year. In the United States, cervical cancerincidence is nearly twice as high in counties with poverty levels 20%compared with those with poverty levels

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